A component of a mixture that can be separated on the basis of some property or properties
Ulmus glabra / U. laevis
Kraft pulping modification to achieve lower kappa numbers with maintained pulp strength.
Method of cooking pulp to low lignin content, thereby reducing the need for bleaching chemicals
A method used in sulphate pulping in which raw material is fed continuously into the digester, while at the same time pulp and black liquor are removed (cf. batch cooking)
An image in which the subject has continuous shades of colour or gray without being broken up by dots. Continuous tones cannot be reproduced in that form for printing but must be screened to translate the image into dots.
= continuous tone
Jatkuvatoiminen virtausdynaaminen mäntyöljyn erotuslaitos, jatkuvatoiminen virtausdynaaaminen mäntyöljyn palstoituslaitos, jatkuvatoiminen virtausdynaaminen mäntyöljykeittämö, jatkuvatoiminen HDS-laitos, jatkuvatoiminen HDS-mäntyöljykeittämö, jatkuvatoiminen HDS-palstoitus
Continuous Hydro Dynamic Separator (HDS) Tall Oil Plant
A plant used to separate the crude tall oil rich fractions, alkali lye rich fractions and lignin/fibre rich fractions from the soap into own phases. The phase separation may be based on either HDS-method or centrifugal separation.
Mechanical treatment of fibres to improve fibre bonding
Mechanical treatment of fibres to improve fibre bonding.
The ease with which pulp can be beaten to achieve the desired properties
A mechanical device used to produce mechanical pulp between grooved metallic discs, of which the other or both are rotating.
Grooved discs mounted inside a refiner used to defibreise wood chips into mechanical pulp.
Paper machine with a single large drying cylinder (Yankee cylinder) which repes the paper and produces a glazed surface on one side
The edge of paper, plate or blanket that transfers first ink, opposite is trailing edge
Julkaisujen valmistaminen tietokoneella
Technique of using a PC to design images and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or imagesetter to output the assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Abbreviated DTP.
Public/municipal water supply
Water supply from a water treatment works.
Large roll of paper coming off the paper machine before cutting; a large customer roll
The sand-like or granular appearance of an image. Graininess becomes more pronounced with faster film and the degree of enlargement.
Carbonless copy paper
Paper coated with a chemical which, when pressed against another piece of coated paper, may transfer an image without the use of carbon paper. Often, the paper is coated with a layer of microcapsules containing colourless dye which release the dye when pressure is applied to the paper.
A term applied to pulps to indicate loss of brightness during natural or artificial agening.
Efterkräppning, kräppning utanför pappersmaskinen
A method whereby paper is creped in a separate operation rather than by the paper machine¿s Yankee cylinder
All operations after printing.
After surface condenser
Heat exchanger located between (main) surface condenser and vacuuum device. The after condenser receives vents from evaporator heating elements and noncondensible gases from the (main) surface condenser
Bestrykning utanför pappersmaskinen, efterbestrykning, off-machine bestrykning
Coating of paper on a separate coating machine
Re-reeling performed to eliminate paper faults or reeling errors.
A narrow layer consisting of living wood cells between the bark and the xylem
In inkjet printing droplet linked together with ligament because of poor droplet formation.
Materials that are not prime products (that is, products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded.
The collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste (including after-care of disposal sites).
The general expression for the withdrawn liquor from pulp cooking
Pulp cooking and washing derived liquid wastes, cf. black liquor
All paper after it has been used; cf. recovered paper
Wastewater treatment plant
Reningsverk för avloppsvatten
(1) Plant where, through physical-chemical and biological processes, organic matter, bacteria, viruses and solids are removed from residential, commercial and industrial wastewaters before they are discharged in rivers, lakes and seas. (2) Installations to render wastewater, sludge, storm water or cooling water fit to meet applicable environmental standards or other quality norms for recycling or reuse.
A waste liquid stream discharged into a sewer or watercourse (a river or a lake). A wastewater discharged from a point source, such as a pipe. See Discharge.
Jätevesiliete, puhdistamoliete , bioliete, liete
The accumulated settled solids separated from various types of water either moist or mixed with liquid component as a result of natural or artificial processes.
Measures and/or techniques that reduce the amount of wastes generated during any domestic, commercial and industrial process.
The bending resistance of a rectangular paper strip of a certain length
The section on a press where inks are cooled after dryer below their setting temperature. It is located after the dryer and before folder or rewinding.
Hot process water is cooled down in Cooling Tower. The cooling is based water evaporisation and mass transfer with air. Air is blown through tower compartment = cell. The number of cells is defined by capacity of cooling tower. The prerequisite for cooling is that air dew point is lower than the temperature of hot process water.
Water which is used to absorb and remove heat. In the joint questionnaire cooling water is broken down into water used in the generation of electricity in power stations, and cooling water used in other industrial processes.
NaOH + 1/2 Na 2 S content of spent liquor. Note the definition may vary.
Lignin left in the pulp after a delignification treatment, e.g. cooking or oxygen delignification.
Paper used to insulate electrical cables
Noncondensible gases from evaporator heating element. Vent gases are taken through orifice to vacuum pump.
Skrubbning, gasrening med skrubber-metoden
A common method of reducing stack air emissions; removal of impurities by spraying a liquid that concentrates the impurities into a liquid waste effluent.
The device which destillates feed water by steam before water is entering Feed Water Tank. In the destillation in water dissolved oxygen (air) and carbon monoxide are transfered into steam stream escaping then from top of the deaerator.
1. Flue gas scrubber is used for flue gas cleaning by spraying water into flue gas stream. Normally the cleaning efficiency for particulate matters is about 90 % and for SO 2 with NaHSO 3 solution 95-98 %. 2. Scrubber for vents from Dissolving Tank.Today the washed gases are led into combustion in Recovery Boiler.
Deponi, avstjälpningsplats, soptipp
A waste disposal site for the deposit of the waste onto or into land (i.e. underground).
A highly toxic solvent, e.g. Used as a solvent for celluloses
An engraved cylinder in which the cells are recessed below the surface like gravure cylinder or die -stamping.
In gravure printing the usually diamond head that engraves the printable image to the printing cylinder.
Paper or board consisting of two furnish layers of different composition and/or filler content; used as art board
Double wall corrugated board
Corrugated board with two layers of fluting and three facings
A reaction that involves two molecules.
Term used to indicate that both sides are printed.
The difference between the paper surfaces. Indicated as the difference between the paper properties measured on the upper and the wire side.
Usually refers to a continuous digester system where one vessel is used for impregnation in series with a second vessel for cooking.
Coating of paper or board twice on one or both sides
Paper or board machine in which the web is formed and partially dewatered between two wires
Machine in which paper is given a glazed finish by passing it between two or more rolls, either on or off the paper machine
The thickness of paper and paperboard expressed in thousands of an inch.
Speed controlled lime discharge device from the lime bin to slaker
Burnt lime drag chain conveyor
Conveyes lime to bucket elevator
To cool down lime discaharge from 1200 C to 250-300 C before dropping down to lime crusher. In same time countercurrent secondary air is heated up. Satellite (multi tube) or Sector cooler type
Hammer mill type crusher
Lime stone equipments
Make up Ca can be introduced to causticizing in purchased lime (CaO) or in lime stone (CaCO 3 ). The lime stone equipments are comprising: Conveyors, crusher, lime stone bin from where discharge vibrator feeds crushed lime stone via secondary crsher and conveyor to lime kiln to be reburned.
Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 )
Chalk. Used in papermaking as a filler or coating pigment
An organic precipitate, (CaC 2 O 4 )
The gap on a plate or blanket cylinder which is needed for plate or blanket mounting. The gap remains unprinted in web offset printing and is a source of paper waste.
Plate and blanket cylinders without gaps, cylindrical sleeves are used as plates and blankets
Lime kiln is surrounded by the riding rings supported with the carying rollers below lime kiln.
Carrying roller set
The rollers below the riding rings and placed in 30 angle from the kiln center line. The rollers are provide with the sliding bearings.
Adding a cover to a printed product.
The base part of a tree that remains standing after the tree has been felled.
Unit price paid for standing timber, exclusive of harvesting and transport costs
A winder whose rolls rest on parallel king rolls. The rolls are rotated by a rider roll lowered on top of the rolls from the circle of the formed roll. The two-drum winder is used less and less in manufacturing certain paper grades as multistation winders are becoming more common.
Clay, China clay
Mineral used in papermaking as both filler and coating pigment
Paper whose fibres parallel the long dimension of the sheet.
A tube having a very small internal diameter
Kappa factor is amount of active chlorine charge to D0 stage in relation with the entering pulp kappa number. The chlorine dioxide dose of D0 is usually expressed using the Kappa factor. The more lignin is removed in the stage, the greater the Kappa factor used. The Kappa factor is generally 1-2.
= (Active chlorine (kg/ADt)) / (Kappa number of pulp entering bleaching)
Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)
Is made from pure cellulose which is etherified by metyl alcohol, e.g. Used as an additive to adjust the viscosity of coating colour
An acid which contains one or several carboxylic groups (-COOH)
Chemical reaction in which a base present in solution is converted to its carbonate/bicarbonate by passing carbon dioxide into the solution
Minor unevenness in the paper (board) surface . Measured by the so-called Bendtsen device (Bendtsen roughness). Roughness during the printing can be expressed better by printing roughness usually determined using the Parker PrintSurf method.
Grained offset printing plate - grained porous area serves as water reservoir in printing.
Förna, skogsströ, törna
More or less undecomposed fallen leaves, needles and other plant residues at the soil surface
Karcinogen/ cancerogen/ cancerframkallande förening
Cancer causing compounds. A carcinogen is an agent (chemical or radiation) that causes cancer.
Thick, stiffish paper often consisting of several plies; widely used for packaging purposes (grammage 150-600 g/m 2 )
Control in which the output variable of a controller is the reference variable of another controller(s)
Selective felling designed to promote the growth of the remaining trees. Thinning normally provides merchantable wood
Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere allow short wavelength solar radiation to reach the Earth but retain radiation of longer wavelength, which causes warming of the atmosphere. Water vapour and carbon dioxide are among the main greenhouse gases
A gas that contributes to the natural greenhouse effect. The Kyoto Protocol covers a basket of six greenhouse gases (GHGs) produced by human activities: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. Annex I Parties' emissions of these gases taken together are to be measured in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents on the basis of the gases? global warming potential. An important natural GHG that is not covered by the protocol is water vapour.
Vegetable oil based inks
An ecologically sound printing ink. The mineral oils are replaced with vegetable oils. Used mostly in CSWO and SFO.
The addition of material (catalyst) that does not take a direct part in a chemical reaction but increases the rate of the reaction.
A compound which lowers the activation energy of the reaction and increases the rate of reaction.
A process in which catalysts are used.
A positive ion that is formed when an atom looses electrons.
Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the printed sheet that the press cuts from the roll of paper.
Time, when web is broken between wire section and reeler. Break is the most expensive downtime for a paper machine as every system is in use, energy is wasted, etc.
Machine that saws pulplogs into uniform short lengths.
Water which is circulated (natural circulation) inside boiler. Boiler water is steaming in steam drum and steam is led into turbine. Impuruties and recidual calcium hardness of boiler water are removed with continuous blowdown.
Non-contact cooling water
Water used for cooling which does not come into direct contact with any raw material, product, by-product, or waste.
Bucket elevator lifts lime to belt conveyor delivering lime to lime bin
Transport of wood from stockpiles to the mills, usually by road or rail but also by ship or by floating
The supply of heat, either in the form of steam or hot water, from a central source to a group of buildings.
See Causticising efficiency
Process by which green liquor from sulphate pulping is converted to white liquor, thus allowing the cooking chemicals to be re-used
Lime milk from the slaker is finally caustcised in in series coupled 3-4 causticising tanks with agitators .
See Causticising efficiency
Kaustistumisaste, kaustisoitumisaste, kaustisiteetti
Causticising degree (%) indicates the chemical efficiency of white liquor production. It shows how much sodium carbonate has been transformed to sodium hydroxide during causticising process.
Paper with a particularly high tensile strength in the machine direction; suitable for being spun into yarn or string
Delningsramsåg, flerklingssåg, ramsåg
Saw whose blades move up and down vertically; used to cut logs into sawn timber (also bow saw)
The pressure vessel to treat pulpwood or other fibre raw material with chemicals to produce chemical pulp. The digester may be either of the batch or the continuous type.
Venting of steam and noncondensibles from the digester during the cook to prevent hot spots and buildup of excessive pressure.
Liquor made up of selected chemicals and used for cooking pulp
Section within a continuous digester in which the major portion of the cooking reactions occur; the section in which the chip mass is at or near the maximum cooking temperature.
Kok, kokning, uppslutning
A process for producing chemical pulp by treating wood with a cooking liquor at a certain temperature and pressure
That part of a chemical pulp mill where cooking takes place
Chelant or chelating agent
A compound that inactivates a metal ion by incorporating the ion in the inner ring structure, chelants are used for example in peroxide bleaching to remove undesirable transition metals.
Chemically combining with a metallic ion into a "coordination complex". Tying the metal ions so that they cannot break the whitening agents and thus increase the need of these agents. Common chemicals used for chelation are EDTA (Ethylendiaminetetraacidic acid) and DTPA (Diethylenetetraminepentaacidic acid).
Decrease in brightness, due to air or light
Kemiallinen hapenkulutus, KHK
Kemisk oxygenförbrukning, kemisk syreförbrukning
See Chemical oxygen demand
Pulp in which wood fibres have been separated by chemical means. Pulp obtained by digestion of wood with solutions of various chemicals.
Pulp and Paper Industry
Covers production of pulp (both chemical and mechanical), paper and board, as well as paper and board converting
Kemiindustri, kemisk industri
Plastic products and components, plastics, petrochemical products, oil products, environmental products, forest industry chemicals, paints, biotechnology products, pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals and other chemical products.
Chemithermomechanical pulp: a mechanical pulp produced with the help of chemicals and steam
Chemical recovery rate
The ratio between recovered chemicals in spent liquor and the chemical charges in Cooking
Purging of chemicals
The excess of a chemical is removed from Chemical Cycle. Normally some fly ash of Recovery Boiler is flashed into sewer to decrease Cl and K in Recovery Cycle.
Chemical cycle, Chemical recovery cycle
Spent liquor/cooking chemical cycle in Pulp Mill
1. Pulp produced with a combination of a gentle chemical treatment stage and mechanical defibration, such as disc refining. The yield range is 80 to 95 %. 2. Subgroup of chemimechanical pulps (also called CMP) , produced with relative severe chemical treartment combined with atmospheric refining. The yield is typically below 90 %
Usually a single-blade circular saw or similar for home use (output under 100 cubic metres a year)
A web produced by a single web unit.
The build-up of ink coloured material on ink roller, plate or blanket. In offset accumulation of fine coating material and ink constituents on offset blanket resulting in blanket wash. Piling starts normally either from trailing edge of solid prints or from light screen areas where it can be seen as worm-like build-up called worm piling. Ink piling refers to accumulation that is caused by poorly made ink. See image area piling, negative piling
That portion of all waste paper that can be collected and re- used. Does not include tissue or paper recycled internally by the paper industry
To place in their correct order the sections or sheets to make up a book or magazine.
The range of tonal values between the highlight and shadow areas.
A winder where the paper rolls are supported and reeled one by one from the roll centre. The tightness of each roll can be controlled better and rolls with a larger diameter can be reeled better than in a two-drum winder.
Central impression cylinder press
Central mottryckscylinder press
See CI press
See water fastness and light fastness. Stability or resistance to paper or ink to influences like light, alkali, water, ¿
A printed product of forms connected to each other. The forms are separated with perforation.
The delivery of the printed pages in chain (for example in Heidelberg machines)
A chemical group, -C=O
A monosaccharide containing a ketone group
Lightweight printing paper (LWC)
Printing paper with high bulk, grammage under 40 g/m 2 ; used in telephone directories, sales catalogues and airmail printings
Coating applied at 7-10 g/m 2 on one or both sides of the paper
Spent liquor is beginning to generate vapour at the boiling point where liquor vapour pressure is the same as the prevailing pressure.
Boiling point rise
Spent liquor is cooking at a higher temperature than pure water at a the same pressure. The difference of the boiling point rises between black liquor and water is called the boiling point rise (BPR). When black liquor boils generated vapour is superheated in measure of the boiling point rise.
Returfiber, återvunnen fiber
Fibre obtained from recovered paper; also secondary fibre (cf. virgin fibre)
The water removed from the stock or web and returned to the process.
White water system
Flow circuit for paper machine white water (includes pipes, storage tanks, cleaning equipment, water from forming section and return feed)
Water circulation system
The white water flow around a paper machine (pipes, tanks, treatment plant, water removal, make up water treatment and feed).
First calendering, in which paper is passed through a roll nip to give it a smoother surface. A post-treatment in the paper production process that gives the paper a higher gloss. The glazing provides a higher image quality but reduced opacity and stiffness.
The ability of the surface to reflect light at a specular angle
Fuser device, Fixing device
Part of the NIP printing machine that fixes the toner particles onto the paper in a nip of high temperature rollers.
Stationär/ fast källa
A fixed-site producer of pollution, mainly power plants and other facilities using industrial combustion processes.
Bark, fibre and other wood-based material released into water during debarking and pulping; filler and coating colour residues from paper mills; solid impurities formed during waste water treatment. Solids can be removed from waste water by settling or filtration
Solid cubic metre
The volume of wood that displaces one cubic metre of water
The tensile stiffness is defined as stress (force per unit width) divided by the corresponding strain, and is also referred to as secant modulus.
The ability of paper or board to resist stress acting in the plane of the sample
A chromophoric organic extractive in wood.
A web tensioning device. Roller uses weight or spring which controls web tension and controls the unwinding breaking force.
Referring to a pile of paper where the moisture content of paper edges is lower that in the middle of sheets causing stress into paper which is seen as tight edges and bag in the middle. A problem of improper climating of paper in the print room.
Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not yet covered. Bound insert for a book that is attached (hung) to the case, for example when glue binding or thread stitching.
Stiff outer covers of a book.
Book-binding product with small number of pages, booklets are glued or stitched to the cover.
The back of a bound book connecting the two covers; also called the Spine.
Kirjapaino- eli graafinen teollisuus
Graphic arts industry
The technology and practice of converting ideas and original in a visual form. Often associated with printing industry but not necessarily.
The intensity of colours, also called luminance. How bright or dark an image is.
The effect of light on glossy surfaces or transparent material. Brilliance is caused by the reflection of the light source or refraction of the light; it requires incident light from narrow beam light sources.
A large coating particle is lifted by the printing ink onto the printing blanket or plate. The thickness of the particle is higher than ink film thickness. In ink transfer the surface of the particle will be inked and the near surroundings are not inked. In the print the fault is seen as "fish eyes". A serious housekeeping problem of the papermaker. The particle may also be ink skin or other contamination. Ink skin resembles the coating hickey but is normally larger. The particle on blanket or plate has to be analyzed to see who is in charge.
Old lithographic printing method where limestone is used as the printing plate. Nowadays used only in art printing. Tunnetaan myös nimellä litografia.
Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp
Mature stage of a forest during which biodiversity is great but net wood production small
A bleaching stage (denoted C) using elemental chlorine as bleaching agent.
Greenish-yellow gas (Cl) used as a bleaching agent. Also known as gas chlorine or elemental chlorine.
Yellow gas in solution as a bleaching agent.
Test method for determining the bleach requirement of a pulp. It indicates the number of grams of chlorine consumed by 100 g of pulp under specified conditions.
Measure of the amount of residual lignin in pulp.
When a graphic object is placed over another, for example a text over a tint area, and you don't want the colours of the text and the background to mix, you should knock out space for the text. A hole the same shape as the text in the tint area is knocked out and the text is printed on an un-printed, paper white surface.
A sheet made from a suspension of fibres in water. Each sheet is formed separately by draining a pulp suspension on a stationary sheet mould. It is generally used for testing the physical properties of the pulp.
A sheet used to obtain correct position and register when printing
Small reference patterns, guides, or crosses placed on originals before reproduction to aid in colour separation and positioning negatives for stripping. They are also placed along the margins of film flats to aid in colour registration and correct alignment of overprinted colours on press sheets.
Register difference, misregistration Misspass
The difference in the alignment of different subcolours in the 4-colour printing.
Unwanted signal of information which obscures the real image
To make a relief image on paper and cut it out at the same time.
Printing method using a raised image, like the flexo printing method
A method of printing that uses hard-relief plates as an image carrier. The image area of the plate is above the non-printing area, receives the ink and it is then transferred directly on paper.
Total alkali (g/l) is a measure for all of the sodium salts in white liquor. In addition sodium sulfide and --hydroxide it measures for example sodium carbonate and --sulfate. Cf. effective and active alkali.
Volume of stemwood removed from a growing forest during a given time either by natural events or felling; sum of wood felled and natural mortality
For example in a print machine
A large film on which you manually mount the individual page films into a complete imposition.
Rotating hammers or tools to knock the electrode frame to loosen ashes.
The most common printing unit found in sheet-fed offset today. Consists of an impression cylinder, a rubber blanket cylinder and a plate cylinder.
A trimming machine with three knives, two parallel and one right angle, which trims three sides at once; can be hand fed or automatic feed.
In use at the moment in catalytic car exhausts. Removes exhaust gases such as nitrogen oxides (reduction) and burns (oxidizes) hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide simultaneously.
A printed surface 100% covered with printing ink.
Gases released during the evaporation of black liquor.
Dissolved lignin can reprecipitate back to fibre surfaces during cooking process. This is usually due to too low alkali concentration (less than 5 - 10 g/l EA as NaOH). Reprecipitated lignin is usually difficult to bleach, because it contains only small amounts of fenolic structures, to which the oxygen and chlorine dioxide influence is based.
Glättstapel, maskinglätt, maskinkalander
Used for first calendering (glazing) of paper on the paper machine
Coating of paper on the paper machine
The roll formed around the paper machine reel drum.
Same as direction of paper in papermaking.
Machine direction in papermaking
Creping of paper on the paper machine using a large drying cylinder known as a Yankee Machine roll See Jumbo roll
An arrangement of a molecule in space
A phenyl propane unit, a building unit of lignin (C 6 C 3 precursor)
Conjugated double bond
Double bonds that are separated from each other by a single bond (CH 2 =CH-CH=CH 2 )
The tonal gradation between highlights, middletones, and shadows in an original or a reproduction. The absolut contrast is measured as the print density difference of full tone and dark tone (70 - 80%) area. The relative contrast is the absolut contrast divided by the full tone density. The print density is said to be ideal when the contrast has maximum value. This density is also called normal colour intensity NCI.
Convection tubes, Boiler bank
Tube package located between superheaters and economisers.The convection tubes are fed water from steam drum and water/steam mixture is returned back to the steam drum for steam cleaning (dropp separation) in the single drum boiler.
Preparing a printing plate or other image carrier for a film or flat, including sensitizing the surface if the plate was not presensitised by the manufacturer, exposing it through the flat, and developing or processing and finishing it so that it is ready for press.
Person doing the platemaking procedures.
Timber felling and haulage to roadside stockpiles
High pressure feeder
Key component of the continuous digester system, consisting of a plug revolving in a casing, similar in appearance to a revolving valve cock.
Blindprägling, blindtryck, prägling
Alternate term for Foil Stamping.
Blindprägling, blindtryck, prägling
Alternate term for Foil Stamping.
Machine for embossing.
To improve a surface's ink wettability and adhesion. The surface energy is increased by applying concentrated electrical discharge.
Make up chemicals
The chemicals like Na 2 SO 4 , NaOH, Na 2 CO 3 etc to compensate S and Na losses from Pulp mill
The ratio of the mass of water in the product and total mass. The paper or board moisture is determined as the decrease in the mass of a test piece and indicated as a percentage
Widening of paper in offset printing due to the dampening solution transferred into paper during printing. Causes misregister.
Growth or shrinkage of paper due to changes in moisture content
Dampening distribution roller
Roller in the dampening system whose task it is to distribute the dampening solution and to make sure it forms a thin dampening film.
Dampening drop roller
Roller in the dampening system that transfers the dampening solution from the duct to the distribution rollers.
Dampening form roller
Roller in the dampening system that transfers the dampening solution from the last distribution rollers to the printing plate.
Dampening duct roller
Roller in the dampening system that takes water from the dampening tub and transfers it to the rollers in the dampening system.
Collective term for all types of dampening rollers in a dampening system.
A couple of rollers that transfer the dampening solution as an even film to the printing plate.
Dampening solution, fountain solution
Water-based solution used in sheet-fed offset for separation image and non-image areas on printing plate. Tensides or isopropanol alcohol is used to reduce surface tension of water. A very complicated mixture of different compounds.
Collected household paper
Waste paper collected from households; in Finland comprises 70-75% newspapers
Med hårda pärmar
A hardback book made with stiff outer covers. Cases are usually covered with cloth, vinyl or leather
When etching the printing form for gravure printing, you use a light-sensitive gel that is hardened by exposing it to light.
1. Inducement of a chemical reaction within a material usually involving cross-linking resulting in hardening of material. 2. The second drying phase of the offset printing ink in which the alkyd reacts with the oxygen in the air through oxidation. The first drying phase is setting.
Facing board used, for example, as an outer ply in corrugated board
Pulp produced with the kraft process. Synonym: sulphate pulp (unbleached).
Alkaline cooking process using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide as the active cooking chemical. Synonym: Sulphate process.
Crinkling of paper during drying to produce a soft, elastic sheet
Paper with high elasticity produced by creping
A dense wrinkle, often tortuous in the machine direction, created at the paper reeling stage (on rolls or at the slitter).
Högsta tillåtna belastning
(1) Carrying capacity is the ability of eco-systems/the earth to bear environmental load without significant damage. The threshold is the critical load. (2) The maximum load that a given system can tolerate before failing.
- A measurable variable used as a baseline or reference in evaluating the performance of an organisation. Benchmarks may he drawn from internal experience or that of other organisations or from legal requirement and are often used to gauge changes in performance over time.
Chemical group responsible for colour in (wood and pulp).
A separation method where gas compound is condensed successively several times. After each condensation the gas is cooled.
A polymer of xylose, a hardwood hemicellulose.
Enzyme used for hydrolysis of xylan in pulp bleaching.
A five-carbon monosaccharide unit (C 5 H 10 O 5 ).
The orientation of the paper fibres caused by the flow direction in the paper machine.
Separation of wood fibres by mechanical and/or chemical means
Wood cell whose properties vary from one tree species to another; the main raw material for papermaking
Separating the fibres in the pulp according to the fibre length.
Undesirable loss of fibre material from pulp during processing
Fibre roughening, fibre puffing
Takes place in heatset offset dryer due to fast moisture escape in hot air, problem mainly with wood containing papers.
Short, chunky bundle of unseparated fibres occurring in mechanical pulps.
The proportions of the different fibre and pulp types in paper (board, cardboard, stock).
Board made from defibrated wood chips on a wet-lap forming machine; used as a building board
The orientation of the fibres on the web. Usually, the fibres are in the machine direction , forming a so called anisotropic web whose properties in machine and cross direction differ from each other.
Lifting or removal of fibres both with coated and uncoated papers, normally in offset printing due to high ink tack.
Wood suitable for making into pulp; not usually good enough for sawmilling. Generally of poorer quality and smaller diameter than sawlogs.
The direction of fibre in a paper or board. Long grain = a sheet is cut so that the long side of the sheet is fibre (machine) direction. Short grain = a sheet has been cut so that the short side of the sheet is in fibre (machine) direction.
Total dry solids flow in dry form.
Dry solids content or concentration
Dry solids amount in liquor, weight of dry solids/ total weight, expressed as %
Different types of dryers are used to evaporate solvent of the ink before the folding or rewinding or in flexo and grauvre before next ink is printed in 4-colour printing. Hot and warm air blowing, IR or UV-radiation methods are in use.
Firing accidentaly continues although feed water feeding was stopped. This may cause very serious damages like tube breakage with water leakage into smelt triggering smelt water explosion. It is utmost important that the security interlocking prevents dry cooking.
Creping of a dry paper web
Mechanical strength of a dry paper sheet (includes tensile strength, tearing resistance and folding endurance)
Dry offset, Waterless offset
Torroffset, vattenfri offset
An offset method where no dampening solution is needed. The ink repelling non-image area of the printing plate consists of silicon.
Dry picking can occur in printing not using dampening solution. Picking that takes place in ink transfer on dry paper surface in the first printing unit is also called dry picking.See also back trap picking and wet picking.
Final part of the paper machine from the drying section onwards
Coating method in which a binder is applied to the paper surface followed by dry coating pigment
Paper (board, cardboard) drying. Dewaters the web enough to make the dry matter content of paper about 90¿97%. Newsprint is usually dried using the cylinder drying method.
See Drying powder
Powder sprayed between the printed sheets in the stream feeder to prevent the printing ink from smearing on the sheet above it. Also called spraying powder.
See Drying powder
Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book
Coating of paper or board with an adhesive, which becomes sticky when wet
In offset printing, a configuration in which a continuous web of paper is fed between two blanket cylinders, printing both sides of the web at the same time. Also called a perfecting press.
See offset blanket
A large diameter roller on a lithographic press that carries the offset rubber blanket, placing it in contact with the inked image on the plate cylinder and then placing it in contact with the substrate to offset the ink image.
Semi-genuine watermark made in the paper machine press section using engraved rolls while the web is still wet
A repetitive, unwanted shadow-like image. Usually the image of other side is visible as lower print density on the top side image. The other possiblity is that the ghost image comes from the previous job printed due to change in offset blanket compressibility or surface chemistry. Ghosting may result also from build-up on non-image area of the blanket. The build-up has to be washed away regularly and is thus a runnability problem. See mechanical ghosting and milking.
The process of preparing a printing press before a new run: to mount printing plates, to establish register, ink density and consistent impression.
Substances which are not desired or benifical in Kraft or Sulfite process
Relatively coarse, non-combustible, generally toxic residue of incineration that accumulates on the grate of a furnace.
The outer protective layer of wood stem
Part of a pulp mill where logs are debarked
Removing bark from pulpwood prior to processing.
A machine designed to fell, delimb, cross-cut and measure logs using a device mounted in the log loader
Oil or gas burners with bigger capacity to be used for addtional steam generation. Load burners are not normally needed if auxilary boiler can produce steam into mill net. The burners are located at upper part of furnace walls.
Machine for carrying wood from the felling site to the transport route (usually a road)
Takes place in heatset web offset. Originates probably in ink transfer on areas of heavy ink coverage on both sides. The delamination becomes visible in heatset dryer as the delamination become into more visible micro bubbles.
Oval or round bubbles visible on coated web sheets. Takes place in ink drying as the paper temperature rapidly increases over 100C. If the vapor pressure cased by the paper moisture exceeds the internal strength of paper this cause delamination of base paper and a surface rupture that can be seen as bubbles. Problem can be encountered in heatset web offset or electrophotograhy.
Wavy paper due to athomospheric conditions or hot air dryer stage in printing
To produce and sell or otherwise make available printed communication to the public.
When the background is shrunk to avoid misregistration. Also see Trapping.
Hot-ground wood pulp
Mechanical pulp produced by grinding logs that have been pretreated with steam
Pulp cleaning at elevated temperature using pressure screens
Type of synthetic resin adhesive used in perfect binding, can be used alone (one-shot binding) or together with PVA (two-shot binding).
To grain an offset printing plate- grained porous area serves as water reservoir in printing.
Kuvan vaalea pää
The lightest or whitest area of an original or reproduction, represented by the densest portion of a continuous- tone negative and by the smallest dot formation on a halftone and printing plate.
1. A digitizing device that digitises and converts photographs, slides and paper images into bitmapped images which can be store by computer. 2. An optical device which uses laser beam to read encoded data in bar code.
An acronym for Picture Element. When an image is defined by many tiny dots, those dots are pixels. A pixel represents the smallest graphic unit of measurement on a screen. The actual size of a pixel is screen-dependent, and varies according to the size of the screen and the resolution being used.
Air is led into furnace with a higher pressure above the tertiary air level
In colour, the nature of colours in terms of density. A colour with heavy saturation will have a higher densitometric values when compared to a colour having less saturation and lower densitometric values.
Steam at its condensing temperature (for a given pressure).
The absorption of an impregnating agent into paper; in pulping, wood chips are impregnated with cooking liquor; timber is impregnated with preservative
Section within a continuous digester in which impregnation occurs.
Component part of some continuous cooking systems (usually called two-vessel systems) in which the chips are impregnated with cooking liquor at a temperature below the maximum cooking temperature.
Cold soda pulp
A semichemical pulp generally produced from hardwoods by room temperature treatment with sodium hydroxide followed by mechanical fibration.
Adhesive that dries in room temperatures.
Pressure ejection of cooked pulp from a batch or continuous digester after the pulp has been cooled to below 100 oC. The cooling step reduces damage to the fibres.
The desired change in the paper or board during the storing time. (For instance, certain stock sizes only develop the desired properties during the maturing process.)
Start up burner
Oil or gas burners for boiler heat up and steam pressure rising. Start up burners are located at secondary air level or lower and can be used for char bed firing and lowering when needed.
Start up valve
Start up valve is used when boiler is pressurised during start up and before steam main valve to turbine or to reduction valves is opened.
Capacity utilisation rate
Indicates the efficiency (%) at which a mill or machine is operating
The tendency for paper to become distorted and not lay flat when it encounters large changes in heat and humidity.
Amount of waste paper raw material used to make a certain amount of paper (usually in %)
For the rotating of lime kiln. The driving mechanism is compricing of motor and auxilary diesel engine,gear reducers, clutch, brake and lubrication system
Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press.
A type of planographic or surface printing. It is distinguished from letterpress (relief) printing and from intaglio printing (in which the design is cut or etched into the plate). Lithography is used both as an art process and as a commercial printing process. In commercial printing the term is used synonymously with offset printing. A greasy ink is applied on image area after the non-image hydrophilic area is wetted by water. In offset lithography an intermediate blanket cylinder is used from which the ink is transferred to paper.
A letterpress containing a flat metal bed on which locked up forms of type and plates in a chase are positioned for printing. To print, the paper is forced against the printing surface by an impression cylinder.
Printing method where image carriers are level surfaces with inked areas separated from noninked areas by chemical means. Planographic printing includes lithography, offset lithography and spirit duplicating.
1. An identification or description of a particular paper or pulp based on its use, appearance, quality, method of manufacture, raw materials or a combination of these factors. 2. The designation of the quality of a piece of timber or other manufactured wood products in accordance with standard rules.
Weak white liquor
Dilute white liquor solution with total alkality about 2 – 15 g/l, depending on the process. Weak white liquor is formed mainly in lime mud washing and it is used e.g. dissolving recovery boiler smelt.
Unwanted density variation in print. Small size of unevenness (< 1 mm) is called graininess and lager scale mottling. Other words for mottling are cloudiness and speckle. The reason for mottling is uneven optical, physical, absorption or surface chemical properties.
Scarifying, patch scarifying
In forest regeneration, removal of top vegetation to expose mineral soil beneath
Implies the difference in the amount of wash water compared to the amount of outgoing liquid per ton of pulp. The amount of wash liquid (represented by the dilution factor) is the most important control quantity of washing.
Liner, täckpapper, wellpappliner
Packaging board used as a surface layer on corrugated board or strong cartonboards
Process for removal of oversized and unwanted particles from the pulp.
Yield of accept pulp after screening.
(1) A thin protective coating applied to a printed sheet to protect the image and improve appearance. (2) The major component of an ink vehicle, consisting of solvent plus a resin or drying oil.
Application of lacquer to give paper greater gloss and stiffness (brochures and some magazine covers)
Where coating of the paper is done.
One of a series of organic compounds, regarded as anhydrides of certain hydroxy acids. In general, they are colorless liquids, having a weak aromatic odor. They are so called because the typical lactone is derived from lactic acid.
Material used to bond together two or more layers of paper, board, etc.; also a laminated product
Shallow pond, usually human-made, where sunlight, bacteria and oxygen interact to help purify wastewater. The term is synonymous with sewage lagoon and stabilisation pond.
Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste. The aim of this directive is, by way of stringent operational and technical requirements on the waste and landfills, to provide for measures, procedures and guidance to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment, in particular the pollution of surface water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global environment, including the greenhouse effect, as well as any resulting risk to human health, from landfilling of waste, during the whole life-cycle of the landfill.
Thread stiching, thread sewing
The traditional bookbinding method. Folded sheets are placed in sheet order but the backs of the sheets are not glued (as in glue binding) but stitched instead. Also called thread sewing.
Machine used to sewing the book backs.
Piece of timber 38-100 mm thick and over 175 mm wide
Suspended solids that will settle out of an effluent during mechanical treatment
Falling film evaporator
Evaporator where spent liquor is falling down and evaporating outside tubes or lamellas (or inside tubes). Black liquor is pumped from evaporator bottom up to liquor distribution box falling down from there onto heating elements.
Point of discharge of wastewater.
Water pipes coming down from steam drum and then boiler water is distributed into steam generating boiler tube pakages.
Chipboard, spånplatta, spånskiva
Board made by gluing together and compressing thin wood chippings; used for making furniture, shelves, doors, flooring and partition walls
A synthetic adhesive in dispersion state.
(1) in electrophotography a latent electrostatic image formed by laser exposition. Image becomes visible in toner transfer stage (2) in film exposure the image becomes latent and will become visible after development stage.
To set copy into type.
Term used in manufacturing of the text portion of the print.
Any material that has condensed from a gaseous phase into a liquid phase. Usually refers to water that has condensed from steam in a heat exchange process.
Multiextraction condensing turbine
Steam turbine with steam extraction to process. The rest of steam is led condensing part working under a sligth vacuum to be condensed there. Cold water is used as cooling medium in the condenser.
Power generation in which fuel is burned for electricity production only
Condensate cleaning for returned mill condensates comprising mechanical filter (fine cellulose material) or softener for Ca- and Mg-ions removal or precoat candle filter to remove solids particles or precoat candle filter applied with deionisation material
Steam or vapour is condensed into liquid form when heat of steam (vapour) is trensfered on heating element or vapour phase of a storage tank. The precondition for condensing is that there is temperature difference between steam(vapour) and liquor (liquid,gas). Condensing causes a rapid vacuum in heating element, surface condenser and storage tank.
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment, elinkaariarviointi)
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)
Life Cycle Assessment (or life cycle analysis) is an integrated "cradle to grave" approach to assess the environmental effects/performance of products and services over their whole life cycle.
Larix sibrica / Larix decidua
Broad leaved woodland
Wooded land on which more than 75 % of the tree cover consists of broadleaved species. See Deciduous forest.
Forest composed primarily of broad-leaved trees that shed all their leaves during one season. Such forests are found in three middle-latitude regions with a temperate climate characterised by a winter season and year-round precipitation. See Broad leaved woodland.
Hardwoods or broad-leaved trees which lose their leaves in winter, such as birch, aspen, maple and cottonwood.
Wood from trees of the angiosperm class, usually with broad leaves and deciduous in temperate zones. Hardwood fibres are short in relation to softwood fibres. Angiosperms, e.g. Birch and eucalyptus.
Hardwood chemical pulp
Chemical pulp made from hardwood
Fluidised bed boiler
Fluidiserad bädd panna
Boiler with bubbling sand bed to intensify fuel combustion. Air is blown via nozzles through bed to get it bubbling.
Method of drying the paper web on the paper machine by blowing air along the direction of the web
A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing
Machine for cutting the paper web into sheets
Pappersspill, pappersspån, rems, skärutskott
Paper or board left over from web or sheet cutting operations
Trees to be cut down or left standing are marked
Area of forest marked for cutting
Marked standing reserve
Estimated volume of wood in stands marked for cutting but not yet felled
Particulate matters of flue gas containing mainly sodium sulfate (95 %) and carbonate (5 %). Some impurities like carbon,Cl,K,Cd etc. exist. in fly ash, too.
Functional groups that intensify the colour of chromophoric compounds.
Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.
A scanner which scans the already exposed printing plates, so you can adjust the basic ink settings in advance.
A pumpable mixture of solids and fluid. Sludge - The residue (solids and some water) produced as a result of raw water or wastewater treatment.
An accumulation of solid matter hydrodynamically suspended with an enclosed body of water, such as in a clarifier.
Sludge press (screw or belt type) dryes sludge to 30-35 % ds to be mixed in bark feed before combustion in bark boiler
Final biochemical reduction stage in sewage treatment in which organic matter is broken down and stabilised by bacteria and other micro-organisms.
Compaction and dewatering of sludge separated from treated effluent
(Dimeric) phenolic organic extractives in wood, e.g. Pinoresinols.
Natural adhesive which binds wood fibres together in the tree and imparts rigidity. Lignin is a three-dimensional, highly polymerised substance composed of 100 and more phenyl propane units. Pulp brightness depends on the amount of lignin remaining in the pulp
Lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC)
A covalently bonded structure or aggregate of lignin and hemicelluloses
Ligniinin esiasteet, prekursorit
Building units of native lignin, three main types are trans-coniferyl alcohol, trans-sinapyl alcohol and trans-p-coumaryl alcohol
Material that can be used to adhere or stick one surface to another. (see Adhesion) Note: Adhesive is the general term and includes among other cement, glue and paste.
A style of threadless binding where the leaves of a book or magazine are held together at the binding edge by glue or synthetic adhesive, the glue is applied on a roughened or ground back
A machine in the drying section of the paper or board machine, used for paper or board surface sizing.
Building timber produced by gluing together wood lamellae; used in load-bearing structures
Measure for adhesive bonding speed and strength
Paper that is stock or surface sized at the production stage.
Treatment of either stock or paper surface with size to improve strength and reduce absorbency
The mechanism used to make a web splice.
A web splice, made in the pressroom, to join the end of one roll of paper to a second roll.
The joining of the ends of rolled material to form a continuous web. The splice can be made while the press is running at full speed by using an automatic splicing device, either a flying paster or a zero- speed splicer.
Ink powdering effect left on the surface of the paper after the ink has failed to dry satisfactorily due to a fault in printing. i.e. Ink pigment does not bind to stock.
Impurities (soap, fibres) and precipitated salts foul heat surfaces
Condensed foul vapour from evaporation and cooking plant. This foul condensate has a high methanol (BOD load) and is malodouros and poisonous. Condensate is purified in stripping.
An fouled (malodorous) evaporation condensate coming down by gravity is purified by upward vapour stream. In stripping methanol and organic sulfur compounds are transfered from liquid phase into gas phase. Stripping is performed in cylinderical column or inside evaporator heating element.
Fast feeder in a sheet-fed printing machine and folder, where sheets overlap in a stream before grippers feed one sheet at a time
Linjaa tuumalla lpi
Lines per inch = resolution of print, see line frequency
In conventional screening screen dots are in a line. Each ink has a specific angle so that human eye cannot distingish regular patters of dots. The distance between lines is given in lines per cm (l/cm) or lines per inch (lpi) units. The higher the number the finer is the screen and thus more details can be rendered. See coarse screen and fine screen.
A liquid polyunsaturated fatty acid that occurs in some plant oils; an essential fatty acid.
A liquid polyunsaturated fatty acid abundant in plant fats and oils; a fatty acid essential for nutrition; used to make soap.
Alkaline chemical solution used in chemical pulp production.
Movement of cooking liquor through the chip mass during a cook either by convection or pumping.
indicates the total liquid amount compared to completely dry wood. It includes all liquids involved in cooking; cooking liquor, possible supplementary liquor and water contained in chips after possible presteaming.
Lipeäroiskeet (kuoha) haihdehöyryssä
Black liquor particulates and foams in exit vapour of an evaporator. Carry over gives rise a high conductivity and black calour in evaporation condensate.
Liquor gun, liquor sprayer
Liquor spraying system that sprayes firing liquor into furnace. Normally there are 2-4 liquor sprayers at each wall to arrive the even liquor distribution over furnace botom area.
Total chemical inventory in the storage tanks (black, white liquor etc.) and equipments of Chemical Cycle. The defining of the inventory is based on Na content of each liquor and the total inventory can be expressed e.g. as Na 2 SO 4 tons.
An organic compound that is insoluble in water, also known as a triglyceride or a fat.
Having affinity for lipids.
Old lithographic printing method where limestone is used as the printing plate. Nowadays used only in art printing. Tunnetaan myös nimellä kivipaino.
Litografia, kivipaino, laakapaino
A greasy ink is applied on image area after the non-image hydrophilic area is wetted by water. In offset lithography an intermediate blanket cylinder is used from which the ink is transferred to paper.
Liuenneet kiinteät aineet
Lösta fasta ämnen
Disintegrated organic and inorganic material contained in water. Excessive amounts make water unsuitable for drinking or for use in industrial processes.
Inks, the colours of which are obtained from soluble dyes, used mainly for inkjet and flexographic printing. The other category of inks is pigmented inks.
A chemical pulp grade used, for example, in the production of acetate and viscose fibres and cellulose films
The hydrodynamic slip plane is an imaginary plane about 2-10 nm from a charged surface where ions closer to the surface act as if they are part of the surface and those outside act as if they are part of the surrounding aqueous solution.
Amount of gaseous oxygen (O2) actually present in water expressed in terms either of its presence in the volume of water (milligrams of O2 per litre) or of its share in saturated water (percentage).
A substance that is liquid in standard conditions and is used to dissolve or dilute other substance. Water is considered the universal solvent. See mineral oil
See Bond cleavage
Forms printing machine, Stationery printing machine
Machine printing forms
A style of threadless binding where the leaves of a book are held together at the binding edge by glue or synthetic adhesive
Increasing the pulp brightness by chemically reducing chromophorous compounds in pulp.
Spent liquor is concentrated to product liquor concentration to be burned in Recovery Boiler.
Lo-Solids keittomodifikaatio, Andritz Lo-Solids
A continuous cooking process that uses split white liquor additions, split washer filtrate additions and multiple extractions to manipulate both the amount and concentration of dissolved organics in order to improve pulping efficiency and pulp quality.
Laminated Strand Lumber, see Engineered Wood Products
Print quality term referring to how clearly the text can be read.
Method for strengthening paper with an insert or surface layer of glass or other synthetic fibre or metal
Ability of paper or board to withstand mechanical stress
Electrical safety sequence made by hard wiring or combutor program e.g. if underpressure of furnace is accidentally lost the fuel firing is stopped automatically.
A central cavity in a fibre.
Luminanssi, piekselin suhteellinen vaaleus
The relative intensity/lightness of colours
Papermaking pulp made from textile waste, cotton, hemp or flax
Boiler water circulation without circulation pump. Boiler water of Recovery Boiler falls down from boiler bank and distributed into furnace wall tubes where water and steam bubbles rise upwards. The differnce in specific gravity between the downtake water and steam/water mixture induces the natural circulation.
Naturlig avgång, naturligt bortfall
Natural thinning of the forest by ageing, diseases or natural phenomena.
Forest regeneration by seed trees or other standing trees (cf. artificial regeneration)
Lightweight coated. See Lightweight printing paper
See Laminated Veneer Lumber, see Engineered Wood Products
The process section between the paper machine and machine tank: machine tank, basis weight control system, wire pit, mixing pump, centrifugal cleaners, deaerator, headbox feed pump, screen system and headbox.
Applies to paper or pulp containing a high proportion of short wood fibres
Transport of wood from the forest to a main transport route, usually a road
An undesirable, unintended interference pattern caused by the out- of-register overlap of two or more patterns, such as dots or lines. In process- colour printing, screen angels are selected to minimise this pattern. If the angels are not correct, an objectionable effect may be produced.
The calorimetric heat value (bomb heat value ) of the dry solids measured with the standardised method. The effective heat value = Calorimetric heat value minus heat of water vaporisation (minus heat of reduction)
The method where black liquor is heated to 180 C to get molecular chains to get shortened. This procedure decreases viscosity of black liquor so much that storing of product liquor in an atmospheric tank is possible
Heat surface is refering to the boiler parts which absorp heat from flue gas like furnace walls, superheater, boiler bank, economiser etc.
Heat exchanger inside evaporator. Tubular or lamella type.
The degradation of water quality usually by the introduction of a heated effluent. It is primarily the result of the discharge of cooling waters from industrial processes, particularly from electrical power generation. "Waste heat" eventually results from virtually every energy conversion. The excessive raising or lowering of water temperature above or below normal seasonal ranges in streams, lakes, estuaries or oceans as the result of discharge of hot or cold effluents into such water.
A digital printer where heat is applied to a ribbon carrying waxed ink which is transferred to the paper.
Penetration of the ink vehicle and/or pigment right through a stock to the other side of paper.
Transparency, show through
The degree to which the transparency of a sheet permits an image printed upon it to be seen from the reverse side. Example of transparent material is printing ink that acts like a filter absorbing specific wavelength of spectrum and letting other part of spectrum go through the pigment.
The visibility of the image printed on the other side of paper. Print through can be divided into show through and strike through
Force acting perpendicular to a paper or board surface needed to puncture the sheet
Opposite to tight edges. The edges of a paper sheet in a pile absorb water from air more than the center of the sheet causing uneven hydro-expansion, which is seen as wavy edges.