JKL

J

Jae, fraktio
Fraction
Fraktion

A component of a mixture that can be separated on the basis of some property or properties

jalava
Elm
Alm

Ulmus glabra / U. laevis

Jatkettu delignifiointi
Extended delignification

Kraft pulping modification to achieve lower kappa numbers with maintained pulp strength.

Jatkettu keitto
Extended cooking
Fortsatt kok

Method of cooking pulp to low lignin content, thereby reducing the need for bleaching chemicals

Jatkuva keitto
Continuous cooking
Kontinuerlig kokning

A method used in sulphate pulping in which raw material is fed continuously into the digester, while at the same time pulp and black liquor are removed (cf. batch cooking)

Jatkuva sävy
Continuous tone
Kontinuerliga toner

An image in which the subject has continuous shades of colour or gray without being broken up by dots. Continuous tones cannot be reproduced in that form for printing but must be screened to translate the image into dots.

Jatkuvasävyinen kuva
Contone image

= continuous tone

Jatkuvatoiminen virtausdynaaminen mäntyöljyn erotuslaitos, jatkuvatoiminen virtausdynaaaminen mäntyöljyn palstoituslaitos, jatkuvatoiminen virtausdynaaminen mäntyöljykeittämö, jatkuvatoiminen HDS-laitos, jatkuvatoiminen HDS-mäntyöljykeittämö, jatkuvatoiminen HDS-palstoitus
Continuous Hydro Dynamic Separator (HDS) Tall Oil Plant

A plant used to separate the crude tall oil rich fractions, alkali lye rich fractions and lignin/fibre rich fractions from the soap into own phases. The phase separation may be based on either HDS-method or centrifugal separation.

Jauhatus
Beating, refining
Malning, raffinering

Mechanical treatment of fibres to improve fibre bonding

Jauhatus
Refining
Raffinering

Mechanical treatment of fibres to improve fibre bonding.

Jauhautuvuus
Beatability
Malbarhet

The ease with which pulp can be beaten to achieve the desired properties

Jauhin
Refiner
Holländare, raffinör

A mechanical device used to produce mechanical pulp between grooved metallic discs, of which the other or both are rotating.

Jauhinlevy
Refiner plates
Raffinörskiva

Grooved discs mounted inside a refiner used to defibreise wood chips into mechanical pulp.

Jenkkikone
Yankee machine
Encylindermaskin, yankeemaskin

Paper machine with a single large drying cylinder (Yankee cylinder) which repes the paper and produces a glazed surface on one side

Johtoreuna
Leading edge
Framkant

The edge of paper, plate or blanket that transfers first ink, opposite is trailing edge

Julkaisujen valmistaminen tietokoneella
Desktop publishing
Skrivbordstryckeri

Technique of using a PC to design images and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or imagesetter to output the assembled pages onto paper, film or printing plate. Abbreviated DTP.

Julkinen vesihuolto
Public/municipal water supply
Offentlig vattenförsörjning

Water supply from a water treatment works.

Jumborulla
Jumbo roll
Jumborulle

Large roll of paper coming off the paper machine before cutting; a large customer roll

Jyrsintäkone
Roughing machine
Krossningsmaskin

See roughing

Jyväisyys
Graininess

The sand-like or granular appearance of an image. Graininess becomes more pronounced with faster film and the degree of enlargement.

Jäljennöspaperi
Carbonless copy paper
Genomslagspapper

Paper coated with a chemical which, when pressed against another piece of coated paper, may transfer an image without the use of carbon paper. Often, the paper is coated with a layer of microcapsules containing colourless dye which release the dye when pressure is applied to the paper.

Jälkikellertyminen
Brightness reversion
Eftergulning

A term applied to pulps to indicate loss of brightness during natural or artificial agening.

Jälkikreppaus
Off-machine creping
Efterkräppning, kräppning utanför pappersmaskinen

A method whereby paper is creped in a separate operation rather than by the paper machine¿s Yankee cylinder

Jälkikäsittely
Finishing
Efterbehandling

All operations after printing.

Jälkipintalauhdutin
After surface condenser
Efterkondensorer

Heat exchanger located between (main) surface condenser and vacuuum device. The after condenser receives vents from evaporator heating elements and noncondensible gases from the (main) surface condenser

Jälkipäällystys
Off-machine coating
Bestrykning utanför pappersmaskinen, efterbestrykning, off-machine bestrykning

Coating of paper on a separate coating machine

Jälkirullaus
Rewinding
Omrullningsmaskin

Re-reeling performed to eliminate paper faults or reeling errors.

Jälsi
Cambium
Kambium, savring

A narrow layer consisting of living wood cells between the bark and the xylem

Jänne
Ligament
Ligament

In inkjet printing droplet linked together with ligament because of poor droplet formation.

Jännitys (paperin)
Tension
Tension

Jäte
Waste
Avfall

Materials that are not prime products (that is, products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded.

Jätehuolto
Waste management
Avfallshantering

The collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste (including after-care of disposal sites).

Jäteliemi
Spent liquor
Avlut

The general expression for the withdrawn liquor from pulp cooking

Jäteliemi
Waste liquor
Avlut

Pulp cooking and washing derived liquid wastes, cf. black liquor

Jätepaperi
Waste paper
Avfallspapper

All paper after it has been used; cf. recovered paper

Jäteveden käsittelylaitos
Wastewater treatment plant
Reningsverk för avloppsvatten

(1) Plant where, through physical-chemical and biological processes, organic matter, bacteria, viruses and solids are removed from residential, commercial and industrial wastewaters before they are discharged in rivers, lakes and seas. (2) Installations to render wastewater, sludge, storm water or cooling water fit to meet applicable environmental standards or other quality norms for recycling or reuse.

Jätevesi
Effluent
Avfallsvatten

A waste liquid stream discharged into a sewer or watercourse (a river or a lake). A wastewater discharged from a point source, such as a pipe. See Discharge.

Jätevesiliete, puhdistamoliete , bioliete, liete
Sewage sludge
Avloppsslam

The accumulated settled solids separated from various types of water either moist or mixed with liquid component as a result of natural or artificial processes.

Jätteen minimointi
Waste minimisation
Avfallsreducering

Measures and/or techniques that reduce the amount of wastes generated during any domestic, commercial and industrial process.

Jäykkyys
Stiffness
Styvhet

The bending resistance of a rectangular paper strip of a certain length

Jäähdytystelat
Chill rolls
Kylvals

The section on a press where inks are cooled after dryer below their setting temperature. It is located after the dryer and before folder or rewinding.

Jäähdytystorni
Cooling tower
Kylningstorn

Hot process water is cooled down in Cooling Tower. The cooling is based water evaporisation and mass transfer with air. Air is blown through tower compartment = cell. The number of cells is defined by capacity of cooling tower. The prerequisite for cooling is that air dew point is lower than the temperature of hot process water.

Jäähdytysvesi
Cooling water
Kylvatten

Water which is used to absorb and remove heat. In the joint questionnaire cooling water is broken down into water used in the generation of electricity in power stations, and cooling water used in other industrial processes.

Jäännösalkali
Residual alkali
Restalkali

NaOH + 1/2 Na 2 S content of spent liquor. Note the definition may vary.

Jäännösligniini
Residual lignin
Restlignin

Lignin left in the pulp after a delignification treatment, e.g. cooking or oxygen delignification.

K

Kaapelipaperi
Cable paper
Kabelpapper

Paper used to insulate electrical cables

Kaasaukset
Vents
Avluftning

Noncondensible gases from evaporator heating element. Vent gases are taken through orifice to vacuum pump.

Kaasun pesu
Scrubbing
Skrubbning, gasrening med skrubber-metoden

A common method of reducing stack air emissions; removal of impurities by spraying a liquid that concentrates the impurities into a liquid waste effluent.

Kaasunpoistin
Deaerator
Avgasare

The device which destillates feed water by steam before water is entering Feed Water Tank. In the destillation in water dissolved oxygen (air) and carbon monoxide are transfered into steam stream escaping then from top of the deaerator.

Kaasupesuri, Skrubberi
Scrubber
Skrubber

1. Flue gas scrubber is used for flue gas cleaning by spraying water into flue gas stream. Normally the cleaning efficiency for particulate matters is about 90 % and for SO 2 with NaHSO 3 solution 95-98 %. 2. Scrubber for vents from Dissolving Tank.Today the washed gases are led into combustion in Recovery Boiler.

Kaatopaikka, täyttömaa
Landfill
Deponi, avstjälpningsplats, soptipp

A waste disposal site for the deposit of the waste onto or into land (i.e. underground).

Kadmiummetyleenidiamiini
Cadmiummethylenediamine (Cadoxen)
Kadmiummetylendiamin

A highly toxic solvent, e.g. Used as a solvent for celluloses

Kaiverruspaino
Intaglio
Intaglio

An engraved cylinder in which the cells are recessed below the surface like gravure cylinder or die -stamping.

Kaiverruspää
Engraving head
Gravyrhuvud

In gravure printing the usually diamond head that engraves the printable image to the printing cylinder.

Kaksiaaltopahvi
Duplex paper/board
Tvåwellpapp

Paper or board consisting of two furnish layers of different composition and/or filler content; used as art board

Kaksikerroksinen kartonki/paperi
Double wall corrugated board
Duplexkartong, duplexpapp

Corrugated board with two layers of fluting and three facings

Kaksimolekyylinen reaktio
Bimolecular reaction
Bimolekylär reaktion

A reaction that involves two molecules.

Kaksipuolinen tulostaminen
Duplex printing
Duplex

Term used to indicate that both sides are printed.

Kaksipuolisuus
Two-sideness
Tvåsidighet

The difference between the paper surfaces. Indicated as the difference between the paper properties measured on the upper and the wire side.

Kaksoisastiakeitin
Two-vessel digester

Usually refers to a continuous digester system where one vessel is used for impregnation in series with a second vessel for cooking.

Kaksoispäällystys
Double coating
Dubbelbestrykning

Coating of paper or board twice on one or both sides

Kaksoisviirakone
Twin-wire machine
Dubbelviramaskin

Paper or board machine in which the web is formed and partially dewatered between two wires

Kalansilmä
Fish eye
Fisköga

see hickey

Kalanteri
Calender
Kalander

Machine in which paper is given a glazed finish by passing it between two or more rolls, either on or off the paper machine

Kaliiperi, paksuus
Caliper

The thickness of paper and paperboard expressed in thousands of an inch.

Kalkin annosteluruuvi
Lime feeder
Kalkinmatare

Speed controlled lime discharge device from the lime bin to slaker

Kalkin kolakuljetin
Burnt lime drag chain conveyor
Kalktransportör

Conveyes lime to bucket elevator

Kalkinjähdytin
Lime cooler
Kalkkylare

To cool down lime discaharge from 1200 C to 250-300 C before dropping down to lime crusher. In same time countercurrent secondary air is heated up. Satellite (multi tube) or Sector cooler type

Kalkinmurskain
Lime crusher
Kalkkrossare

Hammer mill type crusher

Kalkkikiven käsittely
Lime stone equipments
Kalksten handling

Make up Ca can be introduced to causticizing in purchased lime (CaO) or in lime stone (CaCO 3 ). The lime stone equipments are comprising: Conveyors, crusher, lime stone bin from where discharge vibrator feeds crushed lime stone via secondary crsher and conveyor to lime kiln to be reburned.

Kalsiumkarbonaatti
Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 )
Kalciumkarbonat

Chalk. Used in papermaking as a filler or coating pigment

Kalsiumoksalaatti
Calcium oxalate
Kalciumoxalat

An organic precipitate, (CaC 2 O 4 )

Kanava
Gap
Gap

The gap on a plate or blanket cylinder which is needed for plate or blanket mounting. The gap remains unprinted in web offset printing and is a source of paper waste.

Kanavaton
Gapless

Plate and blanket cylinders without gaps, cylindrical sleeves are used as plates and blankets

Kannatusrengas
Riding rings
Bärringar

Lime kiln is surrounded by the riding rings supported with the carying rollers below lime kiln.

Kannatusrullasto
Carrying roller set
Bärrullar

The rollers below the riding rings and placed in 30 angle from the kiln center line. The rollers are provide with the sliding bearings.

Kansittaa
Case in
Hänga in

Adding a cover to a printed product.

Kanto
Stump
Stubbe

The base part of a tree that remains standing after the tree has been felled.

Kantohinta
Stumpage price
Rotpris, stubböre

Unit price paid for standing timber, exclusive of harvesting and transport costs

Kantoleikkuri
Two-drum winder

A winder whose rolls rest on parallel king rolls. The rolls are rotated by a rider roll lowered on top of the rolls from the circle of the formed roll. The two-drum winder is used less and less in manufacturing certain paper grades as multistation winders are becoming more common.

Kaoliini
Clay, China clay
Kaolin

Mineral used in papermaking as both filler and coating pigment

Kapea raina
Long grain
Smalbana

Paper whose fibres parallel the long dimension of the sheet.

Kapillaari
Capillary
Kapillär

A tube having a very small internal diameter

Kappakerroin
Kappa
factor

Kappa factor is amount of active chlorine charge to D0 stage in relation with the entering pulp kappa number. The chlorine dioxide dose of D0 is usually expressed using the Kappa factor. The more lignin is removed in the stage, the greater the Kappa factor used. The Kappa factor is generally 1-2.

Kappaluku
Kappa number
Kappatal

= (Active chlorine (kg/ADt)) / (Kappa number of pulp entering bleaching)

Karboksimetyyliselluloosa (CMC)
Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)
Karboximetylcellulosa

Is made from pure cellulose which is etherified by metyl alcohol, e.g. Used as an additive to adjust the viscosity of coating colour

Karboksyylihappo
Carboxylic acid
Karboxylsyra

An acid which contains one or several carboxylic groups (-COOH)

Karboksyyliryhmä
Carboxyl group
Karboxyl grupp

-COOH

Karbonointi
Carbonation
Karbonisering

Chemical reaction in which a base present in solution is converted to its carbonate/bicarbonate by passing carbon dioxide into the solution

Karbonyyli-
Carbonyl
Karbonyl

-C=O

Karheus
Roughness
Ytråhet

Minor unevenness in the paper (board) surface . Measured by the so-called Bendtsen device (Bendtsen roughness). Roughness during the printing can be expressed better by printing roughness usually determined using the Parker PrintSurf method.

Karheus, rakeisuus
Grain
Kornighet

Grained offset printing plate - grained porous area serves as water reservoir in printing.

Karike
Litter
Förna, skogsströ, törna

More or less undecomposed fallen leaves, needles and other plant residues at the soil surface

Karsinogeeninen yhdiste
Carcinogenic compound
Karcinogen/ cancerogen/ cancerframkallande förening

Cancer causing compounds. A carcinogen is an agent (chemical or radiation) that causes cancer.

Kartonki
Board
Kartong, papp

Thick, stiffish paper often consisting of several plies; widely used for packaging purposes (grammage 150-600 g/m 2 )

Kaskadisäätö
Cascade control
Kaskadreglering

Control in which the output variable of a controller is the reference variable of another controller(s)

Kastuvuus
Wettability
Våtbarhet

Kasvatushakkuu
Thinning
Beståndsvårdande huggning

Selective felling designed to promote the growth of the remaining trees. Thinning normally provides merchantable wood

Kasvihuoneilmiö
Greenhouse effect
Drivhuseffekt, växthuseffekt

Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere allow short wavelength solar radiation to reach the Earth but retain radiation of longer wavelength, which causes warming of the atmosphere. Water vapour and carbon dioxide are among the main greenhouse gases

Kasvihuonekaasu
Greenhouse gas
Växthusgas

A gas that contributes to the natural greenhouse effect. The Kyoto Protocol covers a basket of six greenhouse gases (GHGs) produced by human activities: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. Annex I Parties' emissions of these gases taken together are to be measured in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents on the basis of the gases? global warming potential. An important natural GHG that is not covered by the protocol is water vapour.

Kasvisöljypohjaiset värit
Vegetable oil based inks

An ecologically sound printing ink. The mineral oils are replaced with vegetable oils. Used mostly in CSWO and SFO.

Kataja
Juniper
En

Juniperus communis

Katalyysi
Catalysis
Katalys

The addition of material (catalyst) that does not take a direct part in a chemical reaction but increases the rate of the reaction.

Katalyytti
Catalyst
Accelerator

A compound which lowers the activation energy of the reaction and increases the rate of reaction.

Katalyyttinen poltto
Catalytic combustion
Katalytisk förbränning

Katalyyttinen prosessi
Catalytic process
Katalytisk process

A process in which catalysts are used.

Katekoli
Catechol
Katekol

1,2-dihydroxybenzene

Kationi
Cation
Katjon

A positive ion that is formed when an atom looses electrons.

Katkaisupituus
Cut-off
Avskäringslängd

Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore also the length of the printed sheet that the press cuts from the roll of paper.

Katko
Break
Banbrott

Time, when web is broken between wire section and reeler. Break is the most expensive downtime for a paper machine as every system is in use, energy is wasted, etc.

Katkontakone
Slasher
Slasher

Machine that saws pulplogs into uniform short lengths.

Kattilavesi
Boiler water
Pannvatten

Water which is circulated (natural circulation) inside boiler. Boiler water is steaming in steam drum and steam is led into turbine. Impuruties and recidual calcium hardness of boiler water are removed with continuous blowdown.

Kattilavesi
Non-contact cooling water
Indirekt kylvatten

Water used for cooling which does not come into direct contact with any raw material, product, by-product, or waste.

Kauha elevaattori
Bucket elevator

Bucket elevator lifts lime to belt conveyor delivering lime to lime bin

Kaukokuljetus
Long-distance transport
Fjärrtransport

Transport of wood from stockpiles to the mills, usually by road or rail but also by ship or by floating

Kaukolämmitys
District heating
Fjärrvärme

The supply of heat, either in the form of steam or hot water, from a central source to a group of buildings.

Kaustisiteetti
Causticity
Kausticerings effektivitet

See Causticising efficiency

Kaustisointi
Causticizing
Kausticering

Process by which green liquor from sulphate pulping is converted to white liquor, thus allowing the cooking chemicals to be re-used

Kaustisointi säiliö
Causticizing tank
Kausticerings kärl

Lime milk from the slaker is finally caustcised in in series coupled 3-4 causticising tanks with agitators .

Kaustistumisaste, kaustisoitumisaste
Causticizing degree
Kausticerings effektivitet

See Causticising efficiency

Kaustistumisaste, kaustisoitumisaste, kaustisiteetti
Causticizing efficiency
Kausticerings effektivitet

Causticising degree (%) indicates the chemical efficiency of white liquor production. It shows how much sodium carbonate has been transformed to sodium hydroxide during causticising process.

Kehruupaperit
Spinning papers
Spinnpapper

Paper with a particularly high tensile strength in the machine direction; suitable for being spun into yarn or string

Kehäsaha, raamisaha
Frame saw
Delningsramsåg, flerklingssåg, ramsåg

Saw whose blades move up and down vertically; used to cut logs into sawn timber (also bow saw)

Keitin
Digester
Kokare

The pressure vessel to treat pulpwood or other fibre raw material with chemicals to produce chemical pulp. The digester may be either of the batch or the continuous type.

Keittimen kaasaus
Digester relief

Venting of steam and noncondensibles from the digester during the cook to prevent hot spots and buildup of excessive pressure.

Keittoliemi
Cooking liquor
Kokvätska

Liquor made up of selected chemicals and used for cooking pulp

Keittovyöhyke
Cooking zone
Kokzon

Section within a continuous digester in which the major portion of the cooking reactions occur; the section in which the chip mass is at or near the maximum cooking temperature.

Keittäminen
Cooking
Kok, kokning, uppslutning

A process for producing chemical pulp by treating wood with a cooking liquor at a certain temperature and pressure

Keittämö
Digester house
Kokeri

That part of a chemical pulp mill where cooking takes place

Kelaatti
Chelant or chelating agent
Kelat

A compound that inactivates a metal ion by incorporating the ion in the inner ring structure, chelants are used for example in peroxide bleaching to remove undesirable transition metals.

Kelatointi
Chelation
Kelatbildning

Chemically combining with a metallic ion into a "coordination complex". Tying the metal ions so that they cannot break the whitening agents and thus increase the need of these agents. Common chemicals used for chelation are EDTA (Ethylendiaminetetraacidic acid) and DTPA (Diethylenetetraminepentaacidic acid).

Kellertyminen
Yellowing
Eftergulning

Decrease in brightness, due to air or light

Kemiallinen hapenkulutus, KHK
COD
Kemisk oxygenförbrukning, kemisk syreförbrukning

See Chemical oxygen demand

Kemiallinen massa
Chemical pulp
Kemisk massa

Pulp in which wood fibres have been separated by chemical means. Pulp obtained by digestion of wood with solutions of various chemicals.

Kemiallinen metsäteollisuus
Pulp and Paper Industry
Skogsindustri

Covers production of pulp (both chemical and mechanical), paper and board, as well as paper and board converting

Kemianteollisuus
Chemicals Industry
Kemiindustri, kemisk industri

Plastic products and components, plastics, petrochemical products, oil products, environmental products, forest industry chemicals, paints, biotechnology products, pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals and other chemical products.

Kemihierre
CTMP
Kemiraffinörmassa

Chemithermomechanical pulp: a mechanical pulp produced with the help of chemicals and steam

Kemikaalien talteenottoaste
Chemical recovery rate
Återvinningsgrad

The ratio between recovered chemicals in spent liquor and the chemical charges in Cooking

Kemikaalien ulosotto
Purging of chemicals
Utstötning

The excess of a chemical is removed from Chemical Cycle. Normally some fly ash of Recovery Boiler is flashed into sewer to decrease Cl and K in Recovery Cycle.

Kemikaalikierto
Chemical cycle, Chemical recovery cycle
Lutcykel

Spent liquor/cooking chemical cycle in Pulp Mill

Kemimekaaninen massa
Chemimechanical pulp
Kemimekanisk massa

1. Pulp produced with a combination of a gentle chemical treatment stage and mechanical defibration, such as disc refining. The yield range is 80 to 95 %. 2. Subgroup of chemimechanical pulps (also called CMP) , produced with relative severe chemical treartment combined with atmospheric refining. The yield is typically below 90 %

Kenttäsaha
Portable sawmill
Flyttbar såg

Usually a single-blade circular saw or similar for home use (output under 100 cubic metres a year)

Kerros
Ply
Lag

A web produced by a single web unit.

Kertymä
Piling, build-up
Ackumulation

The build-up of ink coloured material on ink roller, plate or blanket. In offset accumulation of fine coating material and ink constituents on offset blanket resulting in blanket wash. Piling starts normally either from trailing edge of solid prints or from light screen areas where it can be seen as worm-like build-up called worm piling. Ink piling refers to accumulation that is caused by poorly made ink. See image area piling, negative piling

Keräyspaperi
Recovered paper
Returpapper

That portion of all waste paper that can be collected and re- used. Does not include tissue or paper recycled internally by the paper industry

Kerääminen
Gathering
Samling

To place in their correct order the sections or sheets to make up a book or magazine.

Keskisävyt
Middle tones
Mellantons

The range of tonal values between the highlight and shadow areas.

Keskiöleikkuri
Multistation winder

A winder where the paper rolls are supported and reeled one by one from the roll centre. The tightness of each roll can be controlled better and rolls with a larger diameter can be reeled better than in a two-drum winder.

Keskussylinterikone
Central impression cylinder press
Central mottryckscylinder press

See CI press

Kestävyys
Fastness
Fasthet

See water fastness and light fastness. Stability or resistance to paper or ink to influences like light, alkali, water, ¿

Ketjulomake
Continuous form
Kedjeblankett

A printed product of forms connected to each other. The forms are separated with perforation.

Ketjuluovutus
Chain delivery
Radarkutföring

The delivery of the printed pages in chain (for example in Heidelberg machines)

Ketoni
Ketone
Keton

A chemical group, -C=O

Ketoosi
Ketose
Ketose

A monosaccharide containing a ketone group

Kevyt painopaperi
Lightweight printing paper (LWC)
LWC tryckpapper

Printing paper with high bulk, grammage under 40 g/m 2 ; used in telephone directories, sales catalogues and airmail printings

Kevytpäällystys
Lightweight coating
Lätt bestrykning

Coating applied at 7-10 g/m 2 on one or both sides of the paper

Kiehuminen
Boiling
Kokning

Spent liquor is beginning to generate vapour at the boiling point where liquor vapour pressure is the same as the prevailing pressure.

Kiehumispisteen nousu
Boiling point rise
Kokpunktsförhöjning

Spent liquor is cooking at a higher temperature than pure water at a the same pressure. The difference of the boiling point rises between black liquor and water is called the boiling point rise (BPR). When black liquor boils generated vapour is superheated in measure of the boiling point rise.

Kierrätyskuitu
Recycled fibre
Returfiber, återvunnen fiber

Fibre obtained from recovered paper; also secondary fibre (cf. virgin fibre)

Kiertovesi
White water
Bakvatten

The water removed from the stock or web and returned to the process.

Kiertovesijärjestelmä
White water system
Bakvattensystem

Flow circuit for paper machine white water (includes pipes, storage tanks, cleaning equipment, water from forming section and return feed)

Kiertovesijärjestelmä
Water circulation system
Vattencirkulationssystem

The white water flow around a paper machine (pipes, tanks, treatment plant, water removal, make up water treatment and feed).

Kiillotus
Glazing
Glättning

First calendering, in which paper is passed through a roll nip to give it a smoother surface. A post-treatment in the paper production process that gives the paper a higher gloss. The glazing provides a higher image quality but reduced opacity and stiffness.

Kiilto
Gloss
Glans

The ability of the surface to reflect light at a specular angle

Kiinnityslaite
Fuser device, Fixing device
Fixtur

Part of the NIP printing machine that fixes the toner particles onto the paper in a nip of high temperature rollers.

Kiinteä lähde
Stationary source
Stationär/ fast källa

A fixed-site producer of pollution, mainly power plants and other facilities using industrial combustion processes.

Kiintoaine
Suspended solids
Suspenderat ämne

Bark, fibre and other wood-based material released into water during debarking and pulping; filler and coating colour residues from paper mills; solid impurities formed during waste water treatment. Solids can be removed from waste water by settling or filtration

Kiintokuutiometri
Solid cubic metre
Fast kubikmeter

The volume of wood that displaces one cubic metre of water

Kimmokerroin (paperin)
Tensile stiffness
Elasticitetsmodul

The tensile stiffness is defined as stress (force per unit width) divided by the corresponding strain, and is also referred to as secant modulus.

Kimmolujuus
Elastic strength
Elastisk hållfasthet

The ability of paper or board to resist stress acting in the plane of the sample

Kinoni
Quinone
Kinon

A chromophoric organic extractive in wood.

Kinonimetidi
Quinone methide
Kinonmetid

Kireydensäätötela
Dancer roll
Reglervals

A web tensioning device. Roller uses weight or spring which controls web tension and controls the unwinding breaking force.

Kireät reunat
Tight edges

Referring to a pile of paper where the moisture content of paper edges is lower that in the middle of sheets causing stress into paper which is seen as tight edges and bag in the middle. A problem of improper climating of paper in the print room.

Kirja-aihio, kirjablokki
Book block
Bokblock

Folded signatures gathered, sewn and trimmed, but not yet covered. Bound insert for a book that is attached (hung) to the case, for example when glue binding or thread stitching.

Kirjan kansi
Case
Pärm

Stiff outer covers of a book.

Kirjanen
Booklet
Broschyr

Book-binding product with small number of pages, booklets are glued or stitched to the cover.

Kirjanselkä
Backbone, spine
Bokrygg

The back of a bound book connecting the two covers; also called the Spine.

Kirjapaino- eli graafinen teollisuus
Graphic arts industry

The technology and practice of converting ideas and original in a visual form. Often associated with printing industry but not necessarily.

Kirkkaus
Brightness
Klarhet

The intensity of colours, also called luminance. How bright or dark an image is.

Kirkkaus
Brilliance
Briljans

The effect of light on glossy surfaces or transparent material. Brilliance is caused by the reflection of the light source or refraction of the light; it requires incident light from narrow beam light sources.

Kirppu
Hickey

A large coating particle is lifted by the printing ink onto the printing blanket or plate. The thickness of the particle is higher than ink film thickness. In ink transfer the surface of the particle will be inked and the near surroundings are not inked. In the print the fault is seen as "fish eyes". A serious housekeeping problem of the papermaker. The particle may also be ink skin or other contamination. Ink skin resembles the coating hickey but is normally larger. The particle on blanket or plate has to be analyzed to see who is in charge.

Kivipaino
Lithography
Litografi, stentryck

Old lithographic printing method where limestone is used as the printing plate. Nowadays used only in art printing. Tunnetaan myös nimellä litografia.

Klason ligniini
Klason lignin
Klason lignin

Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp

Kliimaksi
Climax
Kalhuggning

Mature stage of a forest during which biodiversity is great but net wood production small

Klooraus
Chlorination
Klorering

A bleaching stage (denoted C) using elemental chlorine as bleaching agent.

Kloori
Chlorine
Klor

Greenish-yellow gas (Cl) used as a bleaching agent. Also known as gas chlorine or elemental chlorine.

Klooridioksidi
Chlorine dioxide
Klordioxid

Yellow gas in solution as a bleaching agent.

Klooriluku
Chlorine number
Klortal

Test method for determining the bleach requirement of a pulp. It indicates the number of grams of chlorine consumed by 100 g of pulp under specified conditions.

Klooriluku, Roe-luku
Roe number
Klortal

Measure of the amount of residual lignin in pulp.

Knockout
Knockout
Knockout

When a graphic object is placed over another, for example a text over a tint area, and you don't want the colours of the text and the background to mix, you should knock out space for the text. A hole the same shape as the text in the tint area is knocked out and the text is printed on an un-printed, paper white surface.

Koearkki
Handsheet
Provark

A sheet made from a suspension of fibres in water. Each sheet is formed separately by draining a pulp suspension on a stationary sheet mould. It is generally used for testing the physical properties of the pulp.

Kohdistusarkki
Register sheet
Registerark

A sheet used to obtain correct position and register when printing

Kohdistusmerkki
Register marks
Passmärke

Small reference patterns, guides, or crosses placed on originals before reproduction to aid in colour separation and positioning negatives for stripping. They are also placed along the margins of film flats to aid in colour registration and correct alignment of overprinted colours on press sheets.

Kohdistusristi
Crossmark
Passkors

Kohdistusvirhe, rekisterivirhe
Register difference, misregistration Misspass

The difference in the alignment of different subcolours in the 4-colour printing.

Kohina
Noise
Brus

Unwanted signal of information which obscures the real image

Kohopainanta
Die-cut embossing

To make a relief image on paper and cut it out at the same time.

Kohopainatus
Relief printing
Högtryck, boktryck

Printing method using a raised image, like the flexo printing method

Kohopaino
Letterpress printing
Boktryck

A method of printing that uses hard-relief plates as an image carrier. The image area of the plate is above the non-printing area, receives the ink and it is then transferred directly on paper.

Kokonaisalkali
Total alkali

Total alkali (g/l) is a measure for all of the sodium salts in white liquor. In addition sodium sulfide and --hydroxide it measures for example sodium carbonate and --sulfate. Cf. effective and active alkali.

Kokonaispoistuma
Total drain
Total avgång

Volume of stemwood removed from a growing forest during a given time either by natural events or felling; sum of wood felled and natural mortality

Kokooja
Assembler
Samlare

For example in a print machine

Kokoomasivufilmi
Assembly film
Montagefilm

A large film on which you manually mount the individual page films into a complete imposition.

Kolistimet
Rapping mechanism
Slagverk

Rotating hammers or tools to knock the electrode frame to loosen ashes.

Kolmisylinteriyksikkö
Three-cylinder unit
Trecylindertryckverk

The most common printing unit found in sheet-fed offset today. Consists of an impression cylinder, a rubber blanket cylinder and a plate cylinder.

Kolmisyrjäleikkuri
Three-knife trimmer
Treknivsskärmaskin

A trimming machine with three knives, two parallel and one right angle, which trims three sides at once; can be hand fed or automatic feed.

Kolmitoimikatalysaattori
Three-way catalysts
Trevägskatalysator

In use at the moment in catalytic car exhausts. Removes exhaust gases such as nitrogen oxides (reduction) and burns (oxidizes) hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide simultaneously.

Kompakti, täyspeitteinen
Full tone
Fulltonsyta

A printed surface 100% covered with printing ink.

Kondensoitumattomat kaasut
Non-condensibles
Okondensenbar gas

Gases released during the evaporation of black liquor.

Kondensoituminen
Reprecipitation
Kondensation

Dissolved lignin can reprecipitate back to fibre surfaces during cooking process. This is usually due to too low alkali concentration (less than 5 - 10 g/l EA as NaOH). Reprecipitated lignin is usually difficult to bleach, because it contains only small amounts of fenolic structures, to which the oxygen and chlorine dioxide influence is based.

Konekalanteri
Machine stack
Glättstapel, maskinglätt, maskinkalander

Used for first calendering (glazing) of paper on the paper machine

Konepäällystys
On-machine coating
Maskinbestrykning

Coating of paper on the paper machine

Konerulla
Machine reel
Maskinrulle

The roll formed around the paper machine reel drum.

Konesuunta
Machine direction
Maskinriktning

Same as direction of paper in papermaking.

Konesuunta
MD
Maskinsriktning

Machine direction in papermaking

Koneviristys
Machine creping
Maskinkräppning

Creping of paper on the paper machine using a large drying cylinder known as a Yankee Machine roll See Jumbo roll

Konformaatio
Conformation
Konformation

An arrangement of a molecule in space

Koniferyylialkoholi
Coniferyl alcohol
Koniferylalkohol

A phenyl propane unit, a building unit of lignin (C 6 C 3 precursor)

Konjugoitu kaksoisidos
Conjugated double bond
Konjugerad dubbelbindning

Double bonds that are separated from each other by a single bond (CH 2 =CH-CH=CH 2 )

Kontrasti
Contrast
Kontrast

The tonal gradation between highlights, middletones, and shadows in an original or a reproduction. The absolut contrast is measured as the print density difference of full tone and dark tone (70 - 80%) area. The relative contrast is the absolut contrast divided by the full tone density. The print density is said to be ideal when the contrast has maximum value. This density is also called normal colour intensity NCI.

Konvektioputkisto, Lieriöputkisto
Convection tubes, Boiler bank
Konvektionstubsats

Tube package located between superheaters and economisers.The convection tubes are fed water from steam drum and water/steam mixture is returned back to the steam drum for steam cleaning (dropp separation) in the single drum boiler.

Kopiointi
Platemaking
Kopiering

Preparing a printing plate or other image carrier for a film or flat, including sensitizing the surface if the plate was not presensitised by the manufacturer, exposing it through the flat, and developing or processing and finishing it so that it is ready for press.

Kopisti
Platemaker
Kopist

Person doing the platemaking procedures.

Korjuu
Harvesting
Bärgning

Timber felling and haulage to roadside stockpiles

Korkeapainesyötin
High pressure feeder

Key component of the continuous digester system, consisting of a plug revolving in a casing, similar in appearance to a revolving valve cock.

Korkopuristus, korkopainatus
Blind blocking
Blindprägling, blindtryck, prägling

Alternate term for Foil Stamping.

Korkopuristus, korkopainatus
Stamping
Blindprägling, blindtryck, prägling

Alternate term for Foil Stamping.

Korkopuristus, painojälki
Imprint
Avtryck

see Emboss

Korkopuristuskone, kohokuvapainokone
Embossing machine
Präglare

Machine for embossing.

Koronakäsittely
Corona treatment
Korona behandling

To improve a surface's ink wettability and adhesion. The surface energy is increased by applying concentrated electrical discharge.

Korvauskemi kaalit
Make up chemicals
Tillskottskemikalier

The chemicals like Na 2 SO 4 , NaOH, Na 2 CO 3 etc to compensate S and Na losses from Pulp mill

Kosteus
Moisture
Fuktighet

The ratio of the mass of water in the product and total mass. The paper or board moisture is determined as the decrease in the mass of a test piece and indicated as a percentage

Kosteuslaajenema
Fan-out
Våtexpansivitet

Widening of paper in offset printing due to the dampening solution transferred into paper during printing. Causes misregister.

Kosteuslaajenevuus
Hydro-expansitivity
Hydroexpansivitet

Growth or shrinkage of paper due to changes in moisture content

Kostutuksen hierrintela
Dampening distribution roller
Fuktrivvals

Roller in the dampening system whose task it is to distribute the dampening solution and to make sure it forms a thin dampening film.

Kostutuksen hyppytela
Dampening drop roller
Fukthoppvals

Roller in the dampening system that transfers the dampening solution from the duct to the distribution rollers.

Kostutuksen painotela
Dampening form roller
Fuktformvals

Roller in the dampening system that transfers the dampening solution from the last distribution rollers to the printing plate.

Kostutuksen värinsyöttötela
Dampening duct roller
Fuktduktorvals

Roller in the dampening system that takes water from the dampening tub and transfers it to the rollers in the dampening system.

Kostutuslaite
Dampening rollers
Fuktverk

Collective term for all types of dampening rollers in a dampening system.

Kostutuslaite
Dampening unit
Fuktningsapparat

A couple of rollers that transfer the dampening solution as an even film to the printing plate.

Kostutusvesi
Dampening solution, fountain solution
Fuktvatten

Water-based solution used in sheet-fed offset for separation image and non-image areas on printing plate. Tensides or isopropanol alcohol is used to reduce surface tension of water. A very complicated mixture of different compounds.

Kotikeräyspaperi
Collected household paper
Returpapper

Waste paper collected from households; in Finland comprises 70-75% newspapers

Kovakantinen
Case bound
Med hårda pärmar

A hardback book made with stiff outer covers. Cases are usually covered with cloth, vinyl or leather

Kovete
Hardener
Garva

When etching the printing form for gravure printing, you use a light-sensitive gel that is hardened by exposing it to light.

Kovetus
Curing
Härdning

1. Inducement of a chemical reaction within a material usually involving cross-linking resulting in hardening of material. 2. The second drying phase of the offset printing ink in which the alkyd reacts with the oxygen in the air through oxidation. The first drying phase is setting.

Kraftlaineri
Kraftliner
Kraftliner, krafttäckpapper

Facing board used, for example, as an outer ply in corrugated board

Kraftmassa
Kraft pulp
Kraftmassa

Pulp produced with the kraft process. Synonym: sulphate pulp (unbleached).

Kraftprosessi
Kraft process
Kraftprocess

Alkaline cooking process using sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide as the active cooking chemical. Synonym: Sulphate process.

Kreppaus
Creping
Kräppning

Crinkling of paper during drying to produce a soft, elastic sheet

Kreppipaperi
Crepe paper
Kräppapper

Paper with high elasticity produced by creping

Kreppirynkky
Crepe wrinkle
Kräpprynka

A dense wrinkle, often tortuous in the machine direction, created at the paper reeling stage (on rolls or at the slitter).

Kriittinen kuormitus
Critical load
Högsta tillåtna belastning

(1) Carrying capacity is the ability of eco-systems/the earth to bear environmental load without significant damage. The threshold is the critical load. (2) The maximum load that a given system can tolerate before failing.

Kriteeri, mittapuu
Benchmark
Riktlinje, måttstock

- A measurable variable used as a baseline or reference in evaluating the performance of an organisation. Benchmarks may he drawn from internal experience or that of other organisations or from legal requirement and are often used to gauge changes in performance over time.

Kromofori
Chromophore

Chemical group responsible for colour in (wood and pulp).

Kryoskooppinen erotus
Cryoscopic separation
Kryoskopisk separering

A separation method where gas compound is condensed successively several times. After each condensation the gas is cooled.

Ksylaani
Xylan
Xylan

A polymer of xylose, a hardwood hemicellulose.

Ksylanaasi
Xylanase
Xylanas

Enzyme used for hydrolysis of xylan in pulp bleaching.

Ksyloosi
Xylose
Xylos

A five-carbon monosaccharide unit (C 5 H 10 O 5 ).

Kuidunsuunta
Fibre direction
Fiberriktning

The orientation of the paper fibres caused by the flow direction in the paper machine.

Kuidutus
Defibration
Defiberring

Separation of wood fibres by mechanical and/or chemical means

Kuitu
Fibre
Fiber

Wood cell whose properties vary from one tree species to another; the main raw material for papermaking

Kuitufraktiointi
Fibre fractioning
Fiberklassificering

Separating the fibres in the pulp according to the fibre length.

Kuituhäviö
Fibre loss
Fiberförlust

Undesirable loss of fibre material from pulp during processing

Kuitukarhenema
Fibre roughening, fibre puffing
Korning

Takes place in heatset offset dryer due to fast moisture escape in hot air, problem mainly with wood containing papers.

Kuitukimppu
Chop
Fiberknit

Short, chunky bundle of unseparated fibres occurring in mechanical pulps.

Kuitukoostumus
Fibre composition
Fibersammansättning

The proportions of the different fibre and pulp types in paper (board, cardboard, stock).

Kuitulevy
Fibreboard
Fiberplatta

Board made from defibrated wood chips on a wet-lap forming machine; used as a building board

Kuituorientaatio
Fibre orientation
Fiberorientering

The orientation of the fibres on the web. Usually, the fibres are in the machine direction , forming a so called anisotropic web whose properties in machine and cross direction differ from each other.

Kuitupicking
Fibre pick
Fibernappning

Lifting or removal of fibres both with coated and uncoated papers, normally in offset printing due to high ink tack.

Kuitupuu
Pulpwood
Massaved

Wood suitable for making into pulp; not usually good enough for sawmilling. Generally of poorer quality and smaller diameter than sawlogs.

Kuitupöly
Fluff
Fluff

See linting

Kuitusuunta
Grain direction
Fiberriktning

The direction of fibre in a paper or board. Long grain = a sheet is cut so that the long side of the sheet is fibre (machine) direction. Short grain = a sheet has been cut so that the short side of the sheet is in fibre (machine) direction.

Kuiva-ainemäärä
Dry solids
Torrsubstansmängd

Total dry solids flow in dry form.

Kuiva-ainepitoisuus
Dry solids content or concentration
Torrsubstans-halt

Dry solids amount in liquor, weight of dry solids/ total weight, expressed as %

Kuivain
Dryer
Drier

Different types of dryers are used to evaporate solvent of the ink before the folding or rewinding or in flexo and grauvre before next ink is printed in 4-colour printing. Hot and warm air blowing, IR or UV-radiation methods are in use.

Kuivakeitto
Dry cooking
Torrkokning

Firing accidentaly continues although feed water feeding was stopped. This may cause very serious damages like tube breakage with water leakage into smelt triggering smelt water explosion. It is utmost important that the security interlocking prevents dry cooking.

Kuivakreppaus
Dry creping
Torrkräppning

Creping of a dry paper web

Kuivalujuus
Dry strength
Torrhållfasthet

Mechanical strength of a dry paper sheet (includes tensile strength, tearing resistance and folding endurance)

Kuivaoffset
Dry offset, Waterless offset
Torroffset, vattenfri offset

An offset method where no dampening solution is needed. The ink repelling non-image area of the printing plate consists of silicon.

Kuivapicking
Dry pick
Torrnoppning

Dry picking can occur in printing not using dampening solution. Picking that takes place in ink transfer on dry paper surface in the first printing unit is also called dry picking.See also back trap picking and wet picking.

Kuivapää
Dry end
Torrända

Final part of the paper machine from the drying section onwards

Kuivapäällystys
Dry coating
Torrbestrykning

Coating method in which a binder is applied to the paper surface followed by dry coating pigment

Kuivatus
Drying
Torkning

Paper (board, cardboard) drying. Dewaters the web enough to make the dry matter content of paper about 90¿97%. Newsprint is usually dried using the cylinder drying method.

Kuivike
Drying agent
Torkpulver

See Drying powder

Kuivike
Drying powder
Torkpulver

Powder sprayed between the printed sheets in the stream feeder to prevent the printing ink from smearing on the sheet above it. Also called spraying powder.

Kuivike
Spraying powder
Torkpulver

See Drying powder

Kultaus
Gilding
Förgyllning

Mostly in the book arena, gold leafing the edges of a book

Kumeeraus
Gumming
Gummering

Coating of paper or board with an adhesive, which becomes sticky when wet

Kumi/kumi-painokone
Blanket-to-blanket press
Gummi/gummi-tryck

In offset printing, a configuration in which a continuous web of paper is fed between two blanket cylinders, printing both sides of the web at the same time. Also called a perfecting press.

Kumikangas
Rubber blanket
Gummiduk

See offset blanket

Kumisylinteri
Blanket cylinder
Gummidukscylinder

A large diameter roller on a lithographic press that carries the offset rubber blanket, placing it in contact with the inked image on the plate cylinder and then placing it in contact with the substrate to offset the ink image.

Kumivesileima
Impressed watermark
Gummimärke, vattengummimärke

Semi-genuine watermark made in the paper machine press section using engraved rolls while the web is still wet

Kummittelu
Ghosting

A repetitive, unwanted shadow-like image. Usually the image of other side is visible as lower print density on the top side image. The other possiblity is that the ghost image comes from the previous job printed due to change in offset blanket compressibility or surface chemistry. Ghosting may result also from build-up on non-image area of the blanket. The build-up has to be washed away regularly and is thus a runnability problem. See mechanical ghosting and milking.

Kuntoonlaitto
Makeready
Iståndsättning

The process of preparing a printing press before a new run: to mount printing plates, to establish register, ink density and consistent impression.

Kuollut kuorma
Dead load
Barlast

Substances which are not desired or benifical in Kraft or Sulfite process

Kuona
Bottom ash
Bottenaska, bottenslagg

Relatively coarse, non-combustible, generally toxic residue of incineration that accumulates on the grate of a furnace.

Kuori, kaarna
Bark
Bark

The outer protective layer of wood stem

Kuorimo
Woodroom
Barkeri

Part of a pulp mill where logs are debarked

Kuorinta
Barking, debarking
Barkning

Removing bark from pulpwood prior to processing.

Kuormainharvesteri
Single-grip harvester
Singelgrepp skördetröska

A machine designed to fell, delimb, cross-cut and measure logs using a device mounted in the log loader

Kuormapoltin
Load burner
Lastbrännare

Oil or gas burners with bigger capacity to be used for addtional steam generation. Load burners are not normally needed if auxilary boiler can produce steam into mill net. The burners are located at upper part of furnace walls.

Kuormatraktori
Forwarder
Lastraktor

Machine for carrying wood from the felling site to the transport route (usually a road)

Kuplapikkaus
Blister pick
Blister noppning

Takes place in heatset web offset. Originates probably in ink transfer on areas of heavy ink coverage on both sides. The delamination becomes visible in heatset dryer as the delamination become into more visible micro bubbles.

Kupliminen
Blistering
Blister

Oval or round bubbles visible on coated web sheets. Takes place in ink drying as the paper temperature rapidly increases over 100C. If the vapor pressure cased by the paper moisture exceeds the internal strength of paper this cause delamination of base paper and a surface rupture that can be seen as bubbles. Problem can be encountered in heatset web offset or electrophotograhy.

Kupruilu
Cockling
Skrynkling

Wavy paper due to athomospheric conditions or hot air dryer stage in printing

Kustantaa, julkaista
Publish
Publicera

To produce and sell or otherwise make available printed communication to the public.

Kustantaja
Publisher F
örläggare, utgivare

Kutistaminen
Choking
Krympning

When the background is shrunk to avoid misregistration. Also see Trapping.

Kuumahioke
Hot-ground wood pulp
Varmslipmassa, varmslip

Mechanical pulp produced by grinding logs that have been pretreated with steam

Kuumalajittelu
Hot screening
Varmsilning

Pulp cleaning at elevated temperature using pressure screens

Kuumaliima
Hot melt
Varmlim

Type of synthetic resin adhesive used in perfect binding, can be used alone (one-shot binding) or together with PVA (two-shot binding).

Kuurnata, karhentaa
Grain
Korna

To grain an offset printing plate- grained porous area serves as water reservoir in printing.

Kuusi
Spruce
Gran

Picea abies

Kuvan vaalea pää
Highlight
Highlight

The lightest or whitest area of an original or reproduction, represented by the densest portion of a continuous- tone negative and by the smallest dot formation on a halftone and printing plate.

Kuvanlukija, skanneri
Scanner
Scanner

1. A digitizing device that digitises and converts photographs, slides and paper images into bitmapped images which can be store by computer. 2. An optical device which uses laser beam to read encoded data in bar code.

Kuvapiste, pikseli
Pixel
Bildelement, pixel

An acronym for Picture Element. When an image is defined by many tiny dots, those dots are pixels. A pixel represents the smallest graphic unit of measurement on a screen. The actual size of a pixel is screen-dependent, and varies according to the size of the screen and the resolution being used.

Kvartaari-ilma
Quaternary air
Kvartarluft

Air is led into furnace with a higher pressure above the tertiary air level

Kylläisyys
Saturation
Mättnad

In colour, the nature of colours in terms of density. A colour with heavy saturation will have a higher densitometric values when compared to a colour having less saturation and lower densitometric values.

Kylläshöyry
Saturated steam
Mättad ånga

Steam at its condensing temperature (for a given pressure).

Kyllästys, impregnointi
Vignette screen
Impregnering

The absorption of an impregnating agent into paper; in pulping, wood chips are impregnated with cooking liquor; timber is impregnated with preservative

Kyllästysalue
Impregnation zone

Section within a continuous digester in which impregnation occurs.

Kyllästysastia
Impregnation vessel
Impregneringskärl

Component part of some continuous cooking systems (usually called two-vessel systems) in which the chips are impregnated with cooking liquor at a temperature below the maximum cooking temperature.

Kylmäalkalimassa
Cold soda pulp

A semichemical pulp generally produced from hardwoods by room temperature treatment with sodium hydroxide followed by mechanical fibration.

Kylmäliima
Cold-setting adhesive
Kallim

Adhesive that dries in room temperatures.

Kylmäpusku
Cold blow

Pressure ejection of cooked pulp from a batch or continuous digester after the pulp has been cooled to below 100 oC. The cooling step reduces damage to the fibres.

Kypsyminen
Maturing
Mogning

The desired change in the paper or board during the storing time. (For instance, certain stock sizes only develop the desired properties during the maturing process.)

Käynnistys poltin
Start up burner
Startbrännare

Oil or gas burners for boiler heat up and steam pressure rising. Start up burners are located at secondary air level or lower and can be used for char bed firing and lowering when needed.

Käynnistys venttiili
Start up valve
Startventil

Start up valve is used when boiler is pressurised during start up and before steam main valve to turbine or to reduction valves is opened.

Käyntiaste
Capacity utilisation rate
Relativ drifttid

Indicates the efficiency (%) at which a mill or machine is operating

Käyristyminen
Curling
Curl

The tendency for paper to become distorted and not lay flat when it encounters large changes in heat and humidity.

Käyttöaste
Utilisation rate
Utnyttjandegrad

Amount of waste paper raw material used to make a certain amount of paper (usually in %)

Käyttökoneisto
Driving mechanism
Driftmaskin

For the rotating of lime kiln. The driving mechanism is compricing of motor and auxilary diesel engine,gear reducers, clutch, brake and lubrication system

Kääntölaitepainokone
Perfector
Komplettmaskin

Press capable of printing both sides of the paper during a single pass. Also called duplex press.

L

Laakapaino
Lithographic printing
Litografisk tryckning

A type of planographic or surface printing. It is distinguished from letterpress (relief) printing and from intaglio printing (in which the design is cut or etched into the plate). Lithography is used both as an art process and as a commercial printing process. In commercial printing the term is used synonymously with offset printing. A greasy ink is applied on image area after the non-image hydrophilic area is wetted by water. In offset lithography an intermediate blanket cylinder is used from which the ink is transferred to paper.

Laakapainokone
Flat-bed press
Flattrycksmaskin

A letterpress containing a flat metal bed on which locked up forms of type and plates in a chase are positioned for printing. To print, the paper is forced against the printing surface by an impression cylinder.

Laakapainomenetelmä
Planographic process
Plantrycksförfarande

Printing method where image carriers are level surfaces with inked areas separated from noninked areas by chemical means. Planographic printing includes lithography, offset lithography and spirit duplicating.

Laatuluokka
Grade
Klass

1. An identification or description of a particular paper or pulp based on its use, appearance, quality, method of manufacture, raw materials or a combination of these factors. 2. The designation of the quality of a piece of timber or other manufactured wood products in accordance with standard rules.

Laihavalkolipeä
Weak white liquor

Dilute white liquor solution with total alkality about 2 – 15 g/l, depending on the process. Weak white liquor is formed mainly in lime mud washing and it is used e.g. dissolving recovery boiler smelt.

Laikullisuus, mottling
Mottling, mottle
Fläckighet

Unwanted density variation in print. Small size of unevenness (< 1 mm) is called graininess and lager scale mottling. Other words for mottling are cloudiness and speckle. The reason for mottling is uneven optical, physical, absorption or surface chemical properties.

Laikutus
Scarifying, patch scarifying
Ruthackning

In forest regeneration, removal of top vegetation to expose mineral soil beneath

Laimennuskerroin
Dilution factor
Utspädningsfaktor

Implies the difference in the amount of wash water compared to the amount of outgoing liquid per ton of pulp. The amount of wash liquid (represented by the dilution factor) is the most important control quantity of washing.

Laineri
Liner
Liner, täckpapper, wellpappliner

Packaging board used as a surface layer on corrugated board or strong cartonboards

Lajittelu (sulpun)
Screening
Silning

Process for removal of oversized and unwanted particles from the pulp.

Lajittelusaanto
Screened yield

Yield of accept pulp after screening.

Lakka
Varnish
Lack

(1) A thin protective coating applied to a printed sheet to protect the image and improve appearance. (2) The major component of an ink vehicle, consisting of solvent plus a resin or drying oil.

Lakkaus
Lacquering
Lackering, lackning

Application of lacquer to give paper greater gloss and stiffness (brochures and some magazine covers)

Lakkauskone
Coating machine
Bestrykningsmaskin

Where coating of the paper is done.

Laktoni
Lactone
Lakton

One of a series of organic compounds, regarded as anhydrides of certain hydroxy acids. In general, they are colorless liquids, having a weak aromatic odor. They are so called because the typical lactone is derived from lactic acid.

Laminaatti
Laminate
Laminat

Material used to bond together two or more layers of paper, board, etc.; also a laminated product

Lammikko-puhdistamo
Oxidation pond
Oxidationsbassäng

Shallow pond, usually human-made, where sunlight, bacteria and oxygen interact to help purify wastewater. The term is synonymous with sewage lagoon and stabilisation pond.

Landfill Directive
Landfill Directive
Landfill Directive

Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste. The aim of this directive is, by way of stringent operational and technical requirements on the waste and landfills, to provide for measures, procedures and guidance to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment, in particular the pollution of surface water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global environment, including the greenhouse effect, as well as any resulting risk to human health, from landfilling of waste, during the whole life-cycle of the landfill.

Lankanidonta
Thread stiching, thread sewing
Trådhäftning

The traditional bookbinding method. Folded sheets are placed in sheet order but the backs of the sheets are not glued (as in glue binding) but stitched instead. Also called thread sewing.

Lankanitomakone
Sewing machine
Garnhäftmaskin

Machine used to sewing the book backs.

Lankku
Deal
Planka

Piece of timber 38-100 mm thick and over 175 mm wide

Laskeutuva aine
Settleable solids
Sedimenterande ämne

Suspended solids that will settle out of an effluent during mechanical treatment

Laskeva kalvohaihdutin
Falling film evaporator
Fallfilmapparat

Evaporator where spent liquor is falling down and evaporating outside tubes or lamellas (or inside tubes). Black liquor is pumped from evaporator bottom up to liquor distribution box falling down from there onto heating elements.

Laskuoja
Outfall
Utlopp, utfallsdike

Point of discharge of wastewater.

Laskuputket
Downcomers
Fallrör

Water pipes coming down from steam drum and then boiler water is distributed into steam generating boiler tube pakages.

Lastulevy
Particleboard
Chipboard, spånplatta, spånskiva

Board made by gluing together and compressing thin wood chippings; used for making furniture, shelves, doors, flooring and partition walls

Lateksi
Latex
Latex

A synthetic adhesive in dispersion state.

Latentti kuva
Latent image
Latent bild

(1) in electrophotography a latent electrostatic image formed by laser exposition. Image becomes visible in toner transfer stage (2) in film exposure the image becomes latent and will become visible after development stage.

Latoa
Compose
Sätta

To set copy into type.

Latominen
Composition
Sättning

Term used in manufacturing of the text portion of the print.

Lauhde
Condensate
Kondensat

Any material that has condensed from a gaseous phase into a liquid phase. Usually refers to water that has condensed from steam in a heat exchange process.

Lauhdeturbiini
Multiextraction condensing turbine
Kondenseringsturbin

Steam turbine with steam extraction to process. The rest of steam is led condensing part working under a sligth vacuum to be condensed there. Cold water is used as cooling medium in the condenser.

Lauhdevoima
Condensing power
Kondenseringskraft

Power generation in which fuel is burned for electricity production only

Lauhteenpuhdistus
Condensate cleaning
Kondensathandling

Condensate cleaning for returned mill condensates comprising mechanical filter (fine cellulose material) or softener for Ca- and Mg-ions removal or precoat candle filter to remove solids particles or precoat candle filter applied with deionisation material

Lauhtuminen
Condensing
Kondensation

Steam or vapour is condensed into liquid form when heat of steam (vapour) is trensfered on heating element or vapour phase of a storage tank. The precondition for condensing is that there is temperature difference between steam(vapour) and liquor (liquid,gas). Condensing causes a rapid vacuum in heating element, surface condenser and storage tank.

LCA (Life Cycle Assessment, elinkaariarviointi)
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment)

Life Cycle Assessment (or life cycle analysis) is an integrated "cradle to grave" approach to assess the environmental effects/performance of products and services over their whole life cycle.

Lehtikuusi
Larch
Lärkträd

Lehtikuusi
Larch
Lärk

Larix sibrica / Larix decidua

Lehtimetsä
Broad leaved woodland
Lövskog

Wooded land on which more than 75 % of the tree cover consists of broadleaved species. See Deciduous forest.

Lehtimetsä
Deciduous forest
Lövskog

Forest composed primarily of broad-leaved trees that shed all their leaves during one season. Such forests are found in three middle-latitude regions with a temperate climate characterised by a winter season and year-round precipitation. See Broad leaved woodland.

Lehtipuu
Deciduous trees
Lövträd

Hardwoods or broad-leaved trees which lose their leaves in winter, such as birch, aspen, maple and cottonwood.

Lehtipuu
Hardwood
Lövträd

Wood from trees of the angiosperm class, usually with broad leaves and deciduous in temperate zones. Hardwood fibres are short in relation to softwood fibres. Angiosperms, e.g. Birch and eucalyptus.

Lehtipuusellu
Hardwood chemical pulp
Lövvedsmassa

Chemical pulp made from hardwood

Leijukerros kattila
Fluidised bed boiler
Fluidiserad bädd panna

Boiler with bubbling sand bed to intensify fuel combustion. Air is blown via nozzles through bed to get it bubbling.

Leijukuivatus
Air drying
Luftburen torkning

Method of drying the paper web on the paper machine by blowing air along the direction of the web

Leikkuri
Cutting machine
Skärmaskin

A machine that cuts stacks of paper to desired sizes. The machine can also be used in scoring or creasing

Leikkuri
Sheeter
Skärmaskin

Machine for cutting the paper web into sheets

Leikkuutähde
Trimmings
Pappersspill, pappersspån, rems, skärutskott

Paper or board left over from web or sheet cutting operations

Leimaus
Marking
Utstämpling, utsyning

Trees to be cut down or left standing are marked

Leimikko
Marked stand
Stämplingspost, stämpling

Area of forest marked for cutting

Leimikkovaranto
Marked standing reserve
Stämplingsreserv

Estimated volume of wood in stands marked for cutting but not yet felled

Lentotuhka
Fly ash
Flygaska

Particulate matters of flue gas containing mainly sodium sulfate (95 %) and carbonate (5 %). Some impurities like carbon,Cl,K,Cd etc. exist. in fly ash, too.

Leppä
Alder
Al

Alnus

Leukokromoforit
Leucochromophores
Leukokromofor

Functional groups that intensify the colour of chromophoric compounds.

Leveä raina
Short grain
Bredbana

Levy, laatta
Plate
Plåt

Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.

Levyskanneri
Plate scanner
Plåtscanner

A scanner which scans the already exposed printing plates, so you can adjust the basic ink settings in advance.

Liete, Slurri
Slurry
Slam

A pumpable mixture of solids and fluid. Sludge - The residue (solids and some water) produced as a result of raw water or wastewater treatment.

Lietepeite
Sludge blanket
Slamtäcke

An accumulation of solid matter hydrodynamically suspended with an enclosed body of water, such as in a clarifier.

Lietepuristin
Sludge press
Slampress

Sludge press (screw or belt type) dryes sludge to 30-35 % ds to be mixed in bark feed before combustion in bark boiler

Lietteen mädätys
Sludge digestion
Slamrötning

Final biochemical reduction stage in sewage treatment in which organic matter is broken down and stabilised by bacteria and other micro-organisms.

Lietteenkäsittely
Sludge handling
Slam behandling

Compaction and dewatering of sludge separated from treated effluent

Lignaanit
Lignans
Lignan

(Dimeric) phenolic organic extractives in wood, e.g. Pinoresinols.

Ligniini
Lignin
Lignin

Natural adhesive which binds wood fibres together in the tree and imparts rigidity. Lignin is a three-dimensional, highly polymerised substance composed of 100 and more phenyl propane units. Pulp brightness depends on the amount of lignin remaining in the pulp

Ligniini-hiilihydraattikompleksi
Lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC)
Lignin-kolhydratkomplex

A covalently bonded structure or aggregate of lignin and hemicelluloses

Ligniinin esiasteet, prekursorit
Lignin precursors
Lignin prekursor

Building units of native lignin, three main types are trans-coniferyl alcohol, trans-sinapyl alcohol and trans-p-coumaryl alcohol

Liima, sidosaine
Adhesive
Klister, bindemedel

Material that can be used to adhere or stick one surface to another. (see Adhesion) Note: Adhesive is the general term and includes among other cement, glue and paste.

Liimanidonta
Adhesive binding
Limbindning

A style of threadless binding where the leaves of a book or magazine are held together at the binding edge by glue or synthetic adhesive, the glue is applied on a roughened or ground back

Liimapuristin
Size-press
Limpress

A machine in the drying section of the paper or board machine, used for paper or board surface sizing.

Liimapuu
Glue-laminated timber
Limträ

Building timber produced by gluing together wood lamellae; used in load-bearing structures

Liimattavuus
Glueability

Measure for adhesive bonding speed and strength

Liimattu paperi
Sized paper
Limmad papper

Paper that is stock or surface sized at the production stage.

Liimaus
Sizing
Limning

Treatment of either stock or paper surface with size to improve strength and reduce absorbency

Liitekone
Inserting machine
Iblandningsmaskin

Liitoksentekolaite
Paster
Skarv

The mechanism used to make a web splice.

Liitos
Paster
Skarv

A web splice, made in the pressroom, to join the end of one roll of paper to a second roll.

Liitos
Splice
Söm

The joining of the ends of rolled material to form a continuous web. The splice can be made while the press is running at full speed by using an automatic splicing device, either a flying paster or a zero- speed splicer.

Liituuntuminen
Chalking
Kritning

Ink powdering effect left on the surface of the paper after the ink has failed to dry satisfactorily due to a fault in printing. i.e. Ink pigment does not bind to stock.

Likaantuminen lämpöpinnoilla
Scaling
Inkrustbildning

Impurities (soap, fibres) and precipitated salts foul heat surfaces

Likaislauhde
Contaminated condensate
Smuts kondensat

Condensed foul vapour from evaporation and cooking plant. This foul condensate has a high methanol (BOD load) and is malodouros and poisonous. Condensate is purified in stripping.

Likaislauhteen strippaus
Stripping
Avdrivning (strippning)

An fouled (malodorous) evaporation condensate coming down by gravity is purified by upward vapour stream. In stripping methanol and organic sulfur compounds are transfered from liquid phase into gas phase. Stripping is performed in cylinderical column or inside evaporator heating element.

Limittäin
Cascade
Kaskad

Limivirta-alistus
Stream feeder
Strömföring

Fast feeder in a sheet-fed printing machine and folder, where sheets overlap in a stream before grippers feed one sheet at a time

Limivirtaleikkuri
Rotary trimmer
Strömföringstrimmer

Linjaa tuumalla lpi

Lines per inch = resolution of print, see line frequency

Linjatiheys
Line frequency
Vävtäthet

In conventional screening screen dots are in a line. Each ink has a specific angle so that human eye cannot distingish regular patters of dots. The distance between lines is given in lines per cm (l/cm) or lines per inch (lpi) units. The higher the number the finer is the screen and thus more details can be rendered. See coarse screen and fine screen.

Linoleenihappo
Linolenic acid
Linolensyra

A liquid polyunsaturated fatty acid that occurs in some plant oils; an essential fatty acid.

Linolihappo
Linoleic acid
Linolsyra

A liquid polyunsaturated fatty acid abundant in plant fats and oils; a fatty acid essential for nutrition; used to make soap.

Lipeä
Liquor
Lut

Alkaline chemical solution used in chemical pulp production.

Lipeäkierto
Liquor circulation

Movement of cooking liquor through the chip mass during a cook either by convection or pumping.

Lipeä-puu-suhde
Liquor-wood-ratio

indicates the total liquid amount compared to completely dry wood. It includes all liquids involved in cooking; cooking liquor, possible supplementary liquor and water contained in chips after possible presteaming.

Lipeäroiskeet (kuoha) haihdehöyryssä
Carry over
Lutöverbäring

Black liquor particulates and foams in exit vapour of an evaporator. Carry over gives rise a high conductivity and black calour in evaporation condensate.

Lipeäruisku
Liquor gun, liquor sprayer
Lutspridare, lutsprutare

Liquor spraying system that sprayes firing liquor into furnace. Normally there are 2-4 liquor sprayers at each wall to arrive the even liquor distribution over furnace botom area.

Lipeävaranto
Liquor inventory
Lutstock

Total chemical inventory in the storage tanks (black, white liquor etc.) and equipments of Chemical Cycle. The defining of the inventory is based on Na content of each liquor and the total inventory can be expressed e.g. as Na 2 SO 4 tons.

Lipidi
Lipid
Lipid

An organic compound that is insoluble in water, also known as a triglyceride or a fat.

Lipofiilinen
Lipophilic
Lipofil

Having affinity for lipids.

Litografia
Lithography
Litografi, stentryck

Old lithographic printing method where limestone is used as the printing plate. Nowadays used only in art printing. Tunnetaan myös nimellä kivipaino.

Litografia, kivipaino, laakapaino
Lithographic printing
Litografisk tryckning

A greasy ink is applied on image area after the non-image hydrophilic area is wetted by water. In offset lithography an intermediate blanket cylinder is used from which the ink is transferred to paper.

Liuenneet kiinteät aineet
Dissolved solids
Lösta fasta ämnen

Disintegrated organic and inorganic material contained in water. Excessive amounts make water unsuitable for drinking or for use in industrial processes.

Liukoinen väriaine
Dye
Färgämne

Inks, the colours of which are obtained from soluble dyes, used mainly for inkjet and flexographic printing. The other category of inks is pigmented inks.

Liukosellu
Dissolving pulp
Dissolvingmassa

A chemical pulp grade used, for example, in the production of acetate and viscose fibres and cellulose films

Liukutaso
Slip plane

The hydrodynamic slip plane is an imaginary plane about 2-10 nm from a charged surface where ions closer to the surface act as if they are part of the surface and those outside act as if they are part of the surrounding aqueous solution.

Liuonnut happi
Dissolved oxygen
Upplöst syre

Amount of gaseous oxygen (O2) actually present in water expressed in terms either of its presence in the volume of water (milligrams of O2 per litre) or of its share in saturated water (percentage).

Liuotin
Solvent
Lösningsmedel

A substance that is liquid in standard conditions and is used to dissolve or dilute other substance. Water is considered the universal solvent. See mineral oil

Lohkeaminen, katkeaminen
Cleavage
Klyvning

See Bond cleavage

Lomakepainokone
Forms printing machine, Stationery printing machine
Blankettryckpress

Machine printing forms

Lomittaa
Collate
Kollationera

A style of threadless binding where the leaves of a book are held together at the binding edge by glue or synthetic adhesive

Loppuvalkaisu
Final bleaching
Slutblekning

Increasing the pulp brightness by chemically reducing chromophorous compounds in pulp.

Loppuväkevöinti
Final concentrating
Slutindunstning (konsentrering)

Spent liquor is concentrated to product liquor concentration to be burned in Recovery Boiler.

Lo-Solids keittomodifikaatio, Andritz Lo-Solids
Lo-Solids kokningsmodifikation

A continuous cooking process that uses split white liquor additions, split washer filtrate additions and multiple extractions to manipulate both the amount and concentration of dissolved organics in order to improve pulping efficiency and pulp quality.

LSL
LSL
LSL

Laminated Strand Lumber, see Engineered Wood Products

Luettavuus
Readability
Läsbarhet

Print quality term referring to how clearly the text can be read.

Luettelo
Catalogue
Katalog

Lujittaminen
Reinforcement
Härdning

Method for strengthening paper with an insert or surface layer of glass or other synthetic fibre or metal

Lujuus
Strength
Styrka

Ability of paper or board to withstand mechanical stress

Lukitus
Interlocking
Förregling

Electrical safety sequence made by hard wiring or combutor program e.g. if underpressure of furnace is accidentally lost the fuel firing is stopped automatically.

Lumen, soluontelo
Lumen
Fiferlumen

A central cavity in a fibre.

Luminanssi, piekselin suhteellinen vaaleus

Luminance
Luminans

The relative intensity/lightness of colours

Lumppumassa
Rag pulp
Lumpmassa

Papermaking pulp made from textile waste, cotton, hemp or flax

Luonnonkierto
Natural circulation
Självcirculation

Boiler water circulation without circulation pump. Boiler water of Recovery Boiler falls down from boiler bank and distributed into furnace wall tubes where water and steam bubbles rise upwards. The differnce in specific gravity between the downtake water and steam/water mixture induces the natural circulation.

Luonnonpoistuma
Natural wastage
Naturlig avgång, naturligt bortfall

Natural thinning of the forest by ageing, diseases or natural phenomena.

Luontainen uudistaminen
Natural regeneration
Naturlig skogsföryngring

Forest regeneration by seed trees or other standing trees (cf. artificial regeneration)

LWC
LWC
LWC

Lightweight coated. See Lightweight printing paper

LVL
LVL
LVL

See Laminated Veneer Lumber, see Engineered Wood Products

Lyhyt kierto
Short circulation
Kort cirkulation

The process section between the paper machine and machine tank: machine tank, basis weight control system, wire pit, mixing pump, centrifugal cleaners, deaerator, headbox feed pump, screen system and headbox.

Lyhytkuituinen
Short fibre
Kortfibrig

Applies to paper or pulp containing a high proportion of short wood fibres

Lähikuljetus
Forest haulage
Lunning

Transport of wood from the forest to a main transport route, usually a road

Läike, moaree
Moire
Moiréeffekt

An undesirable, unintended interference pattern caused by the out- of-register overlap of two or more patterns, such as dots or lines. In process- colour printing, screen angels are selected to minimise this pattern. If the angels are not correct, an objectionable effect may be produced.

Lämpöarvo
Heat value
Värmevärde

The calorimetric heat value (bomb heat value ) of the dry solids measured with the standardised method. The effective heat value = Calorimetric heat value minus heat of water vaporisation (minus heat of reduction)

Lämpökäsittely
Heat treatment
Värmebehand ling

The method where black liquor is heated to 180 C to get molecular chains to get shortened. This procedure decreases viscosity of black liquor so much that storing of product liquor in an atmospheric tank is possible

Lämpöpinta
Heat surface
Värmeyta

Heat surface is refering to the boiler parts which absorp heat from flue gas like furnace walls, superheater, boiler bank, economiser etc.

Lämpöpinta
Heating element
Värmeelement, värmekropp

Heat exchanger inside evaporator. Tubular or lamella type.

Lämpösaaste
Thermal pollution
Termisk förorening

The degradation of water quality usually by the introduction of a heated effluent. It is primarily the result of the discharge of cooling waters from industrial processes, particularly from electrical power generation. "Waste heat" eventually results from virtually every energy conversion. The excessive raising or lowering of water temperature above or below normal seasonal ranges in streams, lakes, estuaries or oceans as the result of discharge of hot or cold effluents into such water.

Lämpösiirtotulostin
Thermal printer
Värmeöverföringsskrivare

A digital printer where heat is applied to a ribbon carrying waxed ink which is transferred to the paper.

Läpilyönti
Strike through
Tryckfärggenomslag

Penetration of the ink vehicle and/or pigment right through a stock to the other side of paper.

Läpinäkyvyys
Transparency, show through
Genomskinlighet

The degree to which the transparency of a sheet permits an image printed upon it to be seen from the reverse side. Example of transparent material is printing ink that acts like a filter absorbing specific wavelength of spectrum and letting other part of spectrum go through the pigment.

Läpipainatus
Print through
Kopierings effect

The visibility of the image printed on the other side of paper. Print through can be divided into show through and strike through

Lävistyslujuus
Puncture resistance
Genomslagshållfasthet, punkteringsmotstånd

Force acting perpendicular to a paper or board surface needed to puncture the sheet

Löysät reunat
Wavy edges
Vågiga kanter

Opposite to tight edges. The edges of a paper sheet in a pile absorb water from air more than the center of the sheet causing uneven hydro-expansion, which is seen as wavy edges.